Gem Glossary

Gemology Glossary - Gemological Institute o Cambodia Glossary. Gem Glossary. Gemstone Glossary

Abalone momi

nā pōpō baroque na momi hua mai la e ka edible univalue mollusk i mea pepeiao-hoʻokino iwi i komo ai no kona multicolored makuahine-o-Pearl lining. ʻO Ia, ua loaa ma Amerika, New Zealand a me Japanese wai. Ke kuka spheroid, ua ana flattened a me ka pepeiao, a tooth- hoʻokino

ka hoʻokemu

e lawe i (e like me, he waiwai) a lawe ia paha ka waiwai ikehu mai radiant ikehu (e like me, ka malamalama)

Absorption pae

ke kumu o ka pouli vertical mau laina, paa, ai ole ia wahi (palahalaha absorption), ike i ka wa malamalama ana i ho'īli ai lewa mai ka gemstone ua hoopuehuia i loko o kona spectral eiiiiiaiou, a hookolokolo aku la ia me ka mea kani, e like me ka spectroscope.

Adamantine

ike alohilohi

Adularescence

nae ke ano bluish-i keokeo, aole nō sheen (schiller) moonstone

Allochromatic

i ka wa a ke hoʻololi hehee ai ua makana wale nō e like me kekahi Nā hana huikala i loko o ka gem mea, o ka lako e ua allochromatic (allo = kekahi, chroma = 'ia nā pōpō)

Alluvium

nui manawa mau i hoʻohana no ka mea, hoʻokomo kālā o ka pōhaku'ōpala (alluvial hoʻokomo kālā) i kaʻi aku e kahe ana ka wai, a waiho iho la ma kahawai, muliwai, wai maopopo a Lake moe.

Amorphous

ike ole-crystalline

Anisotropic

ikeʻale huli refractive

Archimedes rula

Archimedes rula hākālia nō i ka wa a ke kino, ua bapetizo ana ma ka wai, alaila, i ka luna hou o ka wai ma ke kino, ua like ia me ke kaumaha o ka wai a pau ka. (O ka manao paa o ka ho'ākāka 'umekaumaha, ma ka hydrostatic he iaoiaeii ma luna keia rula)

ʻimi hoʻopunipuni pohaku

he aniani la ke kanaka, i ka mea i ole maoli counterpart (e like me, ke daimana simulants: strontium titanate, a me YAG)

ʻimi hoʻopunipuni lapaʻau

ka enhancement o ka helehelena o ka waiwai ma ka paio hahana maoli nō, i hookohu aku i, ka penaʻana, impregnation, irradiation paha kukuna-ʻepekema

akoakoa gemstones

kekahi gem ia mai he elua a oi aku na hapa i lepo pipili, a fused pu, e hana i hookahi pohaku

Asterism

asterism ka mea, he manaʻo kanawai, nui eha a eono-Ray, mai aligned olona, ​​a fibrous cavities ma ka pohaku i okioki em cabochon me na inclusions aʻo i kaʻoihana pilipń i ke kaei pelane

Aventurescence

ikaika spangled noʻonoʻo i ka malamalama mai ka papa a flakes o kekahi mea pōhaku i komo iloko o ka pohaku (e like me, e like me ka ike ma ka aventurine aniani, aventurine quartz, aventurine feldspar (sunstone))

Iho (axis) o ka symmetry

kekahi o na oihana mua o symmetry, he (axis) o ka symmetry, he mana laina ma ka konu o ke aniani, no ka mea hiki e ke ka ao ke aniani pela e like me ia e haawi aku ai ia i ka ia nānā aku 2, 3, 4 a 6 manawa i hookahi piha kuapo ( 'o ia hoʻi , he like me helehelena ninoaaeyao he like kulana, oi aku mamua o hookahi ma ka loa kuapo)

Baroque momi

inoa pili i ka momi, o ka poe ma kona ano maoli a me ka hana 'ike loea, blister paha cyst,

a he ole in shape

ʻalā

basalt mai, no ka mea, he pono ole extrusive igneous pohaku, he pouli, he hua liilii-pohakuʻano nui i ae la o ka pouli, a me feldspar pyroxene (me ka ole olivine ole). He nui, he nui no ka ike ana'ku i ua hoʻolaha kaumaha maluna o likeʻole ma ka hionapāʻili, me nā hale a me ka mea pōhaku maʻiʻo

Biaxial pohaku

ma ka orthorhombic, monoclinic a triclinic nenoai, he ekolu aniani o nā koʻi lipi okoa ka loa. Papalua refraction e hana ma ka hapanui kuhikuhi, akā, ma laila au e elua optic koʻi lipi (kuhikuhi ana o hoʻokahi refraction) i oko i kohoʻia i loko o kela a me keia kaʻawale gem? Ueo. minerals pili ana i keia mau nenoai ua ikeia e like me biaxial. (I ka orthorhombic nenoaiu ka optic koʻi lipi, ua like kaʻauiʻana o ka 'C' (rula vertical (axis)), oiai ma ka monoclinic a me ka triclinic aole he pololei pilina me ke aniani koʻi lipi.)

Birefringence

(No hoi haawiia mai ai e like me ka papalua refraction / DR) birefringence, oia ka huina o papalua refraction o ka anisotropic gemstone hōʻike e like me ka likeʻole o ka refractive indices, ma kā mākou kaʻawaleʻana

Biwa momi

ole-nucleated hana 'ike loea momi (pinepine'ololaha a baroque ma ka shape ma Japan) mahiʻai a puni na kapakai o Lake Biwa ma Iapana. O na momi, ua ulu i loko o nui wai mussels i ka hoʻokomo 'koena uuku o kaʻaʻahu i loko o ke kino o ka mussel

kīnā

mau manawa no ka flaw i loli ai i ka ili o ka gem. A kīnā mea ana i na kanaka hana, ma ka wa o ka gem ua i hookiia mai ai oiai ka mea, ua i koʻu manaʻo i loko o Jewelry. Scratches, lua, a me na abrasions poe i ka loa e like me ke ano o naʻole

Blister momi

na momi a ua uhiia ma kekahiʻaoʻao wale nō, ma ka nacreous, ahu iho i ulu ma luna o ka palapala irritant ma ka hui 'ana me ka mollusk iwi. I ka wa ia momi i extracted, i ka wahi ana i ka hui 'ana me ka iwi, ua hānau o ka nacre. Nolaila kēia hanau aoao ua ana o Keʻei aku, a hūnāʻia ma ka Kāu Mau Koho Paʻamau

Brilliance

brilliance, oia ka huina nui o internally lewa malamalama i ka mea i hoʻi mai ai i ka maka, mai ka gemstone. ʻOkoʻa Ka mea, e hiki e hoikeia e like me ka mālamalama (ola) o ka gemstone e like me ka manao ana o ke dala o ka malamalama hoʻi hou i ka maka, mai ka hope aku o facets o ka pohaku

Brittleness

brittleness ua hoakakaia e like me ka nawaliwali ma ka gemstone a mamua o kona paakiki,ʻo ia ka mea susceptible i ka fracture, pōʻino (e like me, wela lapaau ana zircon)

Popoki ka maka o

ike chatoyancy

Center o ka symmetry

kekahi o na oihana mua o symmetry, he konu o ka symmetry, ua hiki mai ka wa a na maka o ka mea hemolele aniani, ua diametrically e ku pono ana i ka like maka ma kēlāʻaoʻao o ke aniani ( 'o ia hoʻi, nā maka i kekahi maka i ka mea like, e ku pono ana a me ka laua)

Chatoyancy

i kou manaʻo kanawai mai aʻo i kaʻoihana laua fibrous inclusions ai 'ole (popoki ka maka) cavities. Ka hookahi mea onionio o ka malamalama akaka ma ka 'aoʻao pana pua i ke kuhikuhi ana o ka poe inclusions, a ua maikaʻi loaʻike ai ma lalo o ka hookahi lolo kukui kumu me nā pōhaku a pau i oki em cabochon

Chelsea 'ia nā pōpō kanaka hōʻike manaʻo

ka mea oia no he huihui 'ana o kānana, ua i kūkulu i ka mea apono' elua wale no puka pauku o ka pae e hiki ma ia mea: o na hohonu ulaula (kokoke 690nm) a me ka hulu uliuli (kokoke 570nm). He mea pono i ka hoike ana i ke alo o ke ikona a cobalt iloko o kekahi gems, no ka mea, o ka ka loaʻaʻana o ka (ikona) kalameaʻai i ka pohaku, a no ka hookaawale ana i kekahi gem noi mai lakou, he pono ole Mohai. Hoʻomanaʻo: E hoʻohana i e like me ke aoʻana hoailona wale no. Maopopo ua kalele iho ma luna o nā ho'āʻo ma

Chromophore

( 'Ia nā pōpō hope paha). Ka aoao o ka molecule ka mea kuleana i ka hui o ka waihoʻoluʻu. He mea keia e like me ka nui constituent ma ka Nine haku mele i loko o idiochromatic pohaku, a me ka accidentai huikala ma allochromatic pohaku

Clarity

manawa hoʻohana 'ia e wehewehe i ka pili okoa ana mai kekahi internai kina ole irregularity (inclusions) i loko o ka gem. I ka ho'ākāka 'ana i ia mai no hoi e komo ili mā (kina), i ka wa noonoo pono i ka clarity papa o ka pohaku

kala like 'ole poʻe hao wale

me kaʻoʻoleʻa laua poe hao wale o ka kala a pau iʻikeʻia ma luna o ka ili o na aniani la, a ma ka internai hale o na pohaku (indicative o ka ulu ana kūlana i ka oko ao ka loaʻa Nine Inch, ke kinowai, ka mahana, a paÿa, a me na kumu)

Kala like 'ole i loko o gems

he pilikia makapō pokole o na constituents i mea keokeo malamalama e hiki ke hoʻokaʻawaleʻia (ʻulaʻula,ʻalani, lenalena, uliuli, he uliuli, lila) e like me ka ka waiʻona ma o ka poni i mea ole i loaʻa i loko o ka la o ka pae. Kala like 'ole, ua hoakakaia ma ka hue, saturation a me ka leo. Ke kino kala like 'ole o ka gemstone ua loko mai o ka malamalama, ma ka mea a ka mea iʻikeʻia e like me ke ku pono i ke ano o kekahi mau hawewe i ka nanaia malamalama. Kala like 'ole hiki e kena ae la no hoi ka lakou hoopuehu,' ākeʻakeʻa o ka malamalama, a me fluorescence

kala like 'ole ciie?

kala like 'ole ciie? acaeoey oo i ka ulu ana o ke aniani aie i kue concentrations o na impurities. Na likeʻole kala like 'ole (mea paa ole cii) maʻamau ike ka poe e hahai i ka na aniani maka

'ia nā pōpō hehee wale

Selective absorption o ka malamalama ma muli o ke alo o ka hoʻololi hehee (ikona, cobalt, keleawe, vanadium, manganese, hao, nickel, titanium) ma idiochromatic, a me na pohaku allochromatic

kana olelo hoopomaikai

olelo hoopomaikai i ka likeʻano i ka papakaukau, a ua noi pakahi aku la ia i ka wa a na aniani la hoike hoailona no o mall (particles) (e like me, fme-hua liilii jadeite jade)

ahupapa gemstone

ike akoakoa gemstone

Conch momi

nonono na momi: momi i loaa mai ka conch nui, he univalve mollusk loaa aku ka mokuna o Hawaii, awawa o Kaleponi, a me Mexico. Keia mau momi, ua maʻamau a pink (a pink alani, a keokeo) ke kala, a me ua wehewehe aku i ka nele o ka nacreous ka penaʻana

Conchoidal

ike fracture

E leka uila mai iaʻu tamorphic

ka recrystallization o ka mea pōhaku oluolu o ka mālama '-nei pōhaku ma, a kokoke i ka papa ciia ma muli o ke alo o ka pelemaka pa

Hoʻokaʻaʻike māhoe

he hoailona o ke aniani twinning, ma ka mea a na kanaka a pau i loko o Hoʻokaʻaʻike ma ka pono pelane (ka māhoe pelane). Na wahi elua o ua aniani ua i hai mai ia ina kekahi hapa i ke ka ao ma o 180 ° (ka hapalua huli) e pili ana i ka iho (axis) (i ka māhoe (axis)) alaila, na halves elua e i ke kinona o ka lula o ke aniani. Ka Hoʻokaʻaʻike māhoe i koe ma nā 'ano apau loa, hoʻokahi papa māhoe-kahi 2 halves o ke aniani, ua i aʻe kauoha a ina kekahi hapalua i ke ka ao ka 180 ° e pili ana i ka pelane, a hui pu, ke ano o ka maʻamau aniani, ua loaa ia; hou, polysynthetic a lammelar kapu-he hoailona o ke aniani twinning ec ke ano o ka Hoʻokaʻaʻike mahoe pinepine i ka loa a lahilahi. Keia ua hoʻonohonoho i ke alo kohoʻia i ko lākou koke hoalauna (e like me, e like me ka loaa ma ka corundum a me ka feldspar). Ike no hoi interpenetrant kapu

pilikia huina

ka huina o incidence kahi i Ray o ka malamalama i ka mea i hele mai i optically denser i rarer meakino ua refracted ma 90 ° i ka maʻamau ( 'o ia hoʻi, he skims ka ili o ka Media elua ma ka Hoʻokaʻaʻike). 'Ōlelo Aʻo: ka mea hou e mahuahua ma keia huina o ke incidence e kauoha i ka refracted Ray kakou e hoi hou i loko o ka palapala meakino kahi ia e noho ai, ma na kanawai o ka noʻonoʻo (' o ia hoʻi, he mea e ae ihola ia internally lewa.)

Cryptocrystalline

(Crypto = nalo). Kau hoʻohana i ka hōʻikeʻia oia hoi o ka luku nui helu o na aniani liʻiliʻi pinepine iiaciiie? Microscopic ho okumu i ka unbroken nui. I ke poʻomanaʻo, 'microscopic aniani Ohi a hiki ikeia amorphous i ka maka kapa ole

he aniani

he aniani ka mea, he chemicallyʻaʻahu paa me ka kauoha internai atomic 'ole, a mawaho ano kau palena ia ana symmetrically hoonohonoho pelane (i lalo) maka

he aniani ano

he aniani ano ninoieo ec pau kēlā mau maka i like loa aku i ka crystallographic koʻi lipi (e like me, pyramid, prism, pinacoid, Dome)

he aniani maʻa

ke aniani kinona (ano, hoʻohui ili honua ano) ma ka mea minerals pele i hoʻomaka ai, ua kapaia ko lakou anianiʻano

aniani inclusions

aniani inclusions he 'ia ma ko lakou ua kŘpa a angular kihi, a me kŘpa a pololei penei. Haoʻa kihi, a me iki e kokoke anaʻano a ua halawai no hoi me ka pono i reabsorption o na inclusions. (Aniani inclusions pele hoike mai i loko o ke ola e kū'ē i ka poʻe kaua kāʻei kua i ka wa a nana aku la au malalo iho o darkfield illumination, a hiki ke kulana kupono ma ka hoʻohana 'ana i kela kapa polars.)

he aniani symmetry

aniani symmetry pili ia i ka 'O ke kaulike kumu hoʻohālike o ka atomic' ole. He mea ka kūlike loa nā'ōlelo (houʻano) o ka like aniani maka (kihi, kihi) e hoike i ka hoʻoponoponoʻana o Kamehameha kauoha kipi o ka waiwai.

Crystalline

crystallineʻia ma ka ho'ākāka 'ana no ka mea pōhaku paa kona Ion, nā'ātoma a molecules ua hoonohonoho ia ma ka pololei oe ano. I mea, o ka manawa ua pinepine hoʻohana 'ia e wehewehe i waiwai loaa no i ka papa' ole a me ka directional ka waiwai aka, aole pono ka poe mawaho geometric ke kinona

Crystallographic koʻi lipi

keia poe ka mana laina o indefinite loa e holo mai ana ma ka

maikaʻi aniani iloko o kekahi definite kuhikuhi i pili i ka symmetry o ke aniani. Lakou intersect ma ka waena konu o ke aniani ma kekahi welau i kapaia ka ho omaka. (He mau laina o ka maopopo, mai ka mea e hiki ke ana ana i ka mamao a me na inclinations o na maka likeʻole.)

hana 'ike loea momi

hana 'ike loea momi, ua Uluwehi me ka ho okumu loa, a hapa' ia, kena ae la

ma ka piʻiʻana o ke kanaka oihana i loko o ke Keena Kalaiaina o na huahana mollusks. Keia pili i ka hana 'ike loea momi ina paha me me ka nucleus ole

Cyst momi

he momi a i hana ma loko o ke kino o ka momi mollusk, a ua spheroid ma ka shape

Dendritic inclusion

laau-e like ole ka limu-me mau māwae, iie (kahi inclusions o okoa mea i fil i kaʻoluʻolu o -. nō kāu hao'okesaside)

Divitrify

e hoonele i ka glassy alohilohi a me ka transluceny. (Ma ka hihia o ke aniani huina hoonui kapaia meta jade - oia ma ka ulu ana o ka incipient crystallization)

Dichroscope

ka dichroscope mea he mea hana e leie aku ka pleochroic 'ole o ka gem minerals e malama, elua waihoʻoluʻu a me malu o ka ano i ka manawa

Diffraction

ka diffraction o ka malamalama, he hana kūikawā ano o ka 'ākeʻakeʻa o ka malamalama, ma na mea keokeo malamalama, ua wāwahi ihola lākou i (mahae) i loko o kona ke keʻena'ōniʻoniʻo e like me ka malamalama hele ma ka liʻiliʻi aperture a i ka wa malamalama hawewe kekahi, he maka ma waena okoa refracting waiwai (e like me, ka hula o ke anoʻikeʻia i loko o makamae Opal)

lakou hoopuehu

lakou hoopuehu no ka hookaawale ana (poha mai) a keokeo malamalama iloko o ka spectral'ōniʻoniʻo ma refraction (ke anuenue o ka malamalama) e like me ka malamalama hele ma o elua ihola surfaces. Ma gems ka mea, ua pinepine haawiia mai ai e like me ka 'ahi'

palua refractive

anisotropic - minerals hoike directional'ōnohi waiwai (e like me, nā pōhaku i loko o ka tetragonal, hexagonal trigonal, orthorhombic, monoclinic a me ka triclinic nenoai)

electromagnetic a pae

manawa hoʻohanaʻia no ka mea, i ka pau ÿana o ka hawewe o radiant ikehu mai ka loihi Radio hawewe e holo i ka loa pokole cosmic hawewe

Oihana mua o symmetry

na oihana mua o symmetry he ke ano o ka classifi-cation no ka ehiku aniani nenoai. Ka mea, he mea maalea, e hiki ai ia kakou e kaawale ae wehewehe i nāʻano likeʻole o ke aniani helehelena. Lakou i hoʻokomo i ka pelane o ka symmetry, he (axis) o ka symmetry, a me ka piko o ka symmetry (e nānā wehewehe malalo o kanaka kau i ka papa)

Eluvium

eluvial hoʻokomo kālā he o ka pōhaku'ōpala (iliili) ka mea i eroded (ino aku), mai ka poʻe kaua pohaku, a koe ma ka situ (ma kahi) me undergoing halihali ma na muliwai

hoʻokuʻu

e haawi aku ai iwaho, (e like, malamalama)

Enantiomorphism

ka hakakino 'ole o ka quartz i haawi ala i ka hema, a me ka lima'ākau spiral ulu o ka quartz, a me kona hoʻopoepoe polarization. ( 'Ōlelo Aʻo: ka hoʻokomo' ana o liʻiliʻi auxillary maka a he pinepine hiki ma ka mawaho ano kokua kuhikuhi i ka hema, a pono kaulike o ka aniani)

Enhancement

ikeʻimi hoʻopunipuni lapaʻau

Epigenetic inclusions

Mail Contemporary inclusions. Ka poe i mai ai mahope iho o ke kahua o ka puali aniani. Keia mau nā acee? Iuo oeiia ka māwae, a me ka mea pōhaku inclusions i hanaʻia ma ka exsolution (e like me, rutile silika ma ka corundum); aole e hōʻikeʻaila / opticon, etc., koena ma ka fracture piha gems.

Exsolution inclusions

ike exsolved

Exsolved

i ka lama paʻipaʻi o minerals. Kekahi hui o na minerals kuahene paa pāʻoihana ma kiʻekiʻe mahana, a lilo i ka poe i emi mahana. I ka wa a keia mau hoomaalili mai mālie hookahi mea pōhaku e puʻe wale aku i ka wa o ke kaua 'ole anuanu a me na aelike, literally'ōpā impurities iloko o hakahaka hakahaka kahi a lakou crystallize (e like me, rutile kuikele (silika) ma ka corundum)

ia'na

ia'na, oia ka wa e kaawale o ka malamalama hoʻi i ka maka. Oia ke kumu o ka pohaku, e hele mai pouli a me ka nele i ka billiance

Facet inoa

faceted gems i ka lei (luna puʻu waiwai ma luna o ke kāʻei), i ka papaʻaina (ka waena facet o ka pāpale aliʻi), he kāʻei (i ka pauku o ka pōhaku, me ka nui anapuni a mawaho palena), he halelewa (na kumu kuleana ma lalo o ke kaei ). A pau na facets ke oko a ma loko o ko lākou nui, alapine (frequency) a hoi ola ke kaumaha ma muli o ka ohi kaila hoʻohana. No ka mea, laʻana, i loko o ka hae mua-oki (omaomao oki) pohaku i ka culet (uuku facet ma ke kumu o ka lānai) UAIAaIN ka keel laina (lōʻihi laina e holo ana ma ka waena konu o ka lalo o ka lānai)

wahahee cleavage

ike māheleʻana

hulu inclusion

he pelane o ka minuke cavities i ikea maʻamau e like me ka nui o ka laau-e like pauku o intercommunicating auwai a (ana wai a piha).

Fibrous

inoa i haawiia i ka mea a ka constituent he aniani la, he kui kele ma-hoʻokino (e like me, asbestos, nephrite jade)

Fingerprint inclusions

keia hiki no hoi e hiki ke ikeia e like me ka hoola hulu, a he poe interconnecting latike o ka wai, piha auwai a me na droplets like ka fingerprint. I hookuu i ka hopena o ka mea pōhaku pāʻoihana i nā kānana iloko o ka mālama '-nei mau māwae, ma kekahi ano hana aniani, a me ka hoola ana i ka māwae pōhaku. Ka kekahi kulana kahi mau helehelena e hana hoi i wela wela lapaau. Fingerprints ua hui iloko o ia ka'agate

a pau

hoʻopau pili ia i ka faceting Hawaiʻi o ka gem, a ua hookolokoloia ma ke degere o ka alohi, regularity, a me flatness o kela a me keia facet

Fluorescence

fluorescence no ka ea puka o ka nanaia malamalama ma gemstones a pau i paku ole ia i hiki ole invisible radiations o pōkole ke kōā (ikehu kiekie)

Fracture

fracture ka mea, he ole inoaia, a wanaao ae, ma ka pohaku

heluʻai

he maikai pohaku o kekahi ano keia ano, oki a me ka anaiia no ka mea nani (momi, he He paahao kaulana koe nae i ka hope koi). A gem ma ka ho'ākāka 'ana, he mea e paʻa nani, a me ka durability rarity

aniani

ka manawa aniani, ua pili i ka waiwai a pau i hanaia ma ka heheʻe, a me kokololio ka huʻihuʻiʻana o ka mea pōhaku waiwai, kūpono ma loko o ke kahua o amorphous mea. Aniani hiki eʻimi hoʻopunipuni (manmade, i kekahi manawa, haawiia aku e like me kāpili ma luna) a oi Kākaʻikahi, maoli e like, obsidian (huaʻi aniani), tektites (manaʻo e lilo meteoric pakī huahana)

Granite

granite ka mea, he malamalama ia nā pōpō, lohi loa-hua liilii intrusive igneous pohaku i i ka hapanui o ka quartz, feldspar a me Mika

ulu wanaao,

māmā a uala eleele auka e paa ai i ka pololei laina ma pana pua e hahai i ka mall kumu o ka mea pōhaku

maʻa

nae ke ano kinona i loko o ka mea a ka mea pōhaku loa mau ia lŘlŘ. Maʻa aole wale me ka 'mawaho ano olelo aponoia ai pela e ka mea pōhaku aka hoi KOLOHE ili' ole e like me ka pono

Hackly

ike fracture

Halo inclusion

aniani inclusion puni i ka stress mau māwae, (s). Keia nana hiki no hoi ia e like me ka hahai i nā'ēheuʻelua emanating mai ka pū aniani (ka mea ana zircon)

paakiki

paakiki no ka mana, he mea pōhaku i ka oukou pale ana i scratching (abrasion). Ike no hoi Moh ka unahiʻole, i

ka hoola mawae

hoola iho la na mawae (na mawae a me cleavages) kahi i ka wai a komo aku la i ka anaʻe, a me ke aniani ulu hou mai. Pinepine haʻawina o ka loli, ua trapped iloko o na cavities a me na auwai a ma o na la feathery a fingerprint-e like me lauana (kekahi manawa hao-i kohuia)

Hue

Hue pili ia i ka inoa o ke ano wale, i ka maemae spectral ka waiʻona ma ke o kaʻulaʻula,ʻalani, lenalena, uliuli, he uliuli, lila, a me ka likeʻole o kēia mau mea. Hue pili pū kēia i ka waiʻona ma o ka poni (ma waena oʻulaʻula, a me lila), i ka mea i loaʻa i loko o ka la o ka pae

Hydrothermal

pōhaku waiho iho, i hookuu ia ma ke kuʻina hope o igneous consolidation mai ka pelemaka waiwai iloko o ka wai, a me na yiaeaiiacaaeneiie waiwai. Ka hydrothermal aa koko o ka mea pōhaku waiwai pāʻoihana Kānana ma i wāhiʻia a me nā māwae, ma sedimentary pōhaku, a me ke ano aniani hoalaala cavities i loko o ka pōhaku

Idiochromatic

i ka wa a ke hoʻololi'āweʻaweʻa mea he nui constituent i loko o ka gem mea, ke gem nā mea idiochromatic (idio = iho, chroma = 'ia nā pōpō)

kaiapuni aeea

uuku aniani aeea no ka mea, i loaʻa pono ke kinowai. Ka loina hope o ka hoʻohana 'ana i ka puka aeea oia i ka refractive Index o ka wai, ua hiki i ka pohaku, i ka hiki pono o ka mea, e lilo ia i ike i loko o ka pōhaku. Aneane kekahi colorless wai, i ka wai, e kua i laloʻilikai noʻonoʻo, ae hana niio? Inclusions nui maʻalahi

i situ

mea pilikia ma ka oihana kahi mea i mua i hana ai waihoia ua olelo mai ia, e loaa ia ia ma situ (literally ma ka wahi)

Inclusion

mau manawa no kekahi kina ole irregularity i loko o ka gem. Inclusions hiki ke maheleia i ekoluʻano: (e like me, zircon ma ka sapeiro) (e like me, ma kona ano maoli aniani ma ka peridot) he paa-na crystalline ai ole-crystalline hiki. Cavities-keia e hana i ka poʻe kaua gems ka ulu ana (iniiaiie inclusions), ai 'ole ma hope (kiʻekiʻe inclusions). i piha ai kekahi 'ano me kekahi huihui' ana o ka wai, kinoea, a me a paa. Poe me elua a oi aku kūlana ua kapa multiphase. Ka ulu phenomena-kala like 'ole ciie? A twinning he mau laʻana o ka ulu ana phenomena

kōāʻula

kōāʻula ano laloʻulaʻula, a me keia lohe ÿana o ka pāhawewe hoʻomaka me ka hawewe i poe hou mamua o ka 700nm o ka ulaula malamalama. Kōāʻula ua nui ike e like me ka wela, no ka mea, produces i ka waiʻona ma o ka mehana i ka wa e pepehi kakou lele

'ākeʻakeʻa

kahi elua na kukuna hele ana ma ke ala hookahi, aka, mai loko mai o ka pae (koe), ae ālai ia 'pu kekahi i kekahi ma o na la kekahi huina ia'na o ka malamalama, a me ka mālama'-dominance o hookahi a oi aku waihoʻoluʻu

'ākeʻakeʻa oeeo?

keia poe'ōnohi ole ike i ka wa e nānā akula au i papalua refractive minerals ma o laua maka ma ka nń kaola o polarized malamalama. Lakou hoʻolimalima IeIAaUIIe 'ike no ka'ōnohi ano o ka pohaku

Interpenetrant mau mahoe

he hoailona o ke aniani twinning i mea elua kanaka i ulu ai pu ai lakou hoike hou aku ai, ua komo iloko o kekahi i kekahi, (pinepine ka hana kea, ai 'ole hoku pohaku)

Iridescence

iridescence a hula o ke ano ho'ākāka ka waihoʻoluʻu a moʻo o na waihoʻoluʻu i lawe ma ke 'ākeʻakeʻa a me diffraction i ka wa malamalama i ka lewa kekahi lahilahi Film mai paha mai ka hanana' ole o ka mea maikai i Opal

Isomorphous hope

ka substitution o kekahi Nine hehee ai, no kekahi o ka mea hookahi valency i loko o ka Nine haku mele. Keia hualoaʻa ma akea likeʻole i loko o ka hoʻoponopono waiwai o na lala o ka moʻo. Valency: na ano like Nine ano, a me ionic kahahńnai

Isotropic

ike singly refractive

Keshi hana 'ike loea momi

maoli 'ia' ole-nucleated Ikelau momi i lilo ma ka mollusk ka wa ia mea, ua hoi aku la ka wai ma hope ana o kaʻohiʻiaʻana o nā nucleated hana 'ike loea momi. Keia mau mea, aole e hookahuli ai i ka meaola hua pearis a he pele nui uuku. Ka Ikelau `keshi 'ua wale no-kapaʻia no ka mea hoi, ua i ulu mai iʻimi hoʻopunipuni nucleus. I kekahi manawa haawiia aku e like me 'seedless' na momi, e hana i ka hookaawale me ka ole-nucleated. Ike no hoi Biwa momi

Keshi na momi (nā)

ka Japanese kahea hua momi `keshi '(Lanai). Ka huiʻaneʻi nō ma waena o nā wahi nui o ka poppy hua, a me ka poe maoli i hana uuku loa momi

Konoscope

he polariscope i hoomakaukauia me ka ikaika nń maka aniani e kōkua kōkua i ka, mākaʻi ihola iā o ke 'ākeʻakeʻa huahelu

Lamellae inclusions

kena ae la ma polysynthetic twinning. Hiki ke hele mai e like me ka poe makapo a me ka aniani moakaka iʻa-aho. Ia lakou e hoi ikea e halawai me ka pana pua (e like, ma ka corundum kahiʻaoʻao halawai)

Lateritic soils

honuaʻia (haku o ka pohaku koena ai, a me kanu) ka mea i kuhikuhi loko mai o decomposed basait (he maikai na hua liilii pouli pele pohaku waiwai i ka hao, a me magnesium, i ka mea loa hamama i ka hopena o Nine weathering i loko o ka Tropical aniau)

Luminescence

mau manawa no ka mea, o ka haawi aku o ka nanaia 'anu' malamalama ma ka waiwai ma luna o loaa surplus ka ikehu i kekahi palapala ai 'ole kekahi. Ka elima kumu mua luminescent phenomena he: chemi-luminescence (hopena o Nine hoʻololi), tribo-luminescence (hua mai ma ka friction), thermo-luminescence (hua mai la i ka wela), photo¬luminescence (hua mai e nanaia a invisible radiations o ka ikaika kiekie / pōkole ke kōā) a cathodoluminescence (hualoaʻa mai excitation me ka electron kaola i loko o ka holo ke keʻena)

alohilohi

alohilohi no ka nui a me ke kūpono o ka malamalama i ka lewa, mai ka ili aku o ka pohaku. Ka hahai huaÿölelo ua hoʻohana 'ia e hōʻike gemstone alohilohi: mea hao: kiʻekiʻe alohilohi hoike e opaque mea hao minerals. adamantine: kiʻekiʻe ili reflectivity. vitreous: aniani, e like me alohilohi KOLOHE o ka hapa nui o na gems. resinous: KOLOHE alohilohi o na resins (pahee me ka haahaa HI). waxy: aneane matte ili (i kekahi manawa, i kapaʻia ka waʻa). ka waʻa: iki oily nana ana mai o ka hoopuehu ana o ka malamalama ma ka microscopically hoʻonaninani ili. Ka Uluwehi O: alohilohi o ka momi / makuahine-o-Pearl. silky: fibrous alohilohi o ke silika

Mabe (eoeuoo? U) momi

ahupapa hana 'ike loea blister na momi, ma ka mea a ka palapala nucleus i hele ai, a UAIAaIN ma ka liʻiliʻi lei lepo pipili i loko, a me ka Dome-hoʻokino'āpana o ka mother- o-Pearl tuko i kona kumu e uhi i ka wahi nele ma nacre

ka pelemaka

hoʻoheheʻe (wai) pohaku

Malleable

malleable ano ua hiki hoi ke ka io a me ke kinona o ka pepehi ana me ka hamare ai ole ia, ma ka puʻe o rollers

Man-i

ke kanaka-i hoonui i ka ho'ākāka 'ana, he mea ia i synthesized ma ke keʻena hoʻokolohua. (E synthesize oia e kau pu ole hui pu iho kumumea i loko o ka luna 'a pau). Ka hopena hopena i ka kemikala gemstone ( 'o ia hoʻi, kekahi mea i kekahi maoli counterpart) ai' ole kaʻimi hoʻopunipuni gemstone ( 'o ia hoʻi, hookahi ka mea i loaa ole maoli counterpart)

papakaukau

manawa hoʻohana i ka hōʻike mea i paʻa i ka definite internai 'ole o ke aniani, aole ka mea, aole ia e hoike i ka oihana geometric ano. Keia hiki e haku o hookahi (e like me, ala quartz) a oi aniani naehana (e like me, jadeite)

Mettalic

ike alohilohi

Metamict

i ka manawa hoʻohanaʻia no ka mea ana i ae aku i kaʻoluʻolu o-ia ilalo, mai ke crystalline i ka he amorphous ana; he pono ole iloko o minerals i loaʻa radioactive mea (e like me, haahaa type zircon)

Metamorphic pōhaku

metamorphic (literally, hoʻololi i ke ano) pōhaku, ua hana mai ka mālama '-nei pōhaku kuhikuhi ma ka hana o ka'aloʻahiʻa, ka wela a me / ai ole ia i ka hoike o ka hou Nine waiwai

Metric carat (HI)

hookahi metric carat = hookahi hapalima o ka gram (0.20gr) ai 'ole 200 milligrams (mg). A metric carat oia i ka mokuna o ke kaupaonaʻana, no ka pau gemstones a me ka hana 'ike loea momi. Ke kaumaha, ua olelo ia iʻelua kekimala wahi, a me na decimals ua pinepine loosely kapaia "puan ',' o ia hoʻi, 1 metric carat = 100 helu

Microscope

he'ōnohi hana oia i kekahi huihui 'ana o lenses i produces i hoonui mau loa ia kiʻi o kekahi mea. Kekahi o ka oi nui hoʻohana o ka magnification: inclusion ao (maoli vs. ke kanaka-i, ano paha o ka ho okumu / ulu aniani); ʻilikai ninaninau (Hawaiʻi o ke oki (symmetry), Polish (kanawai o ka facets, firemarks), ka loaʻaʻana o ka lua pōhaku, ka hōʻoiaʻana i kaʻimi hoʻopunipuni kūlana kanaka, huai ae vulnerability i poho (e like me, imua o ka fracture, a me / ai 'ole cleavage), huai ae a pāpālua hoʻi (M. kakou .DR, no hoi e hoike dala o ka birefringence)

mea pōhaku

he mea pōhaku he maoli 'ia inorganic waiwai me ka Nine haku mele' ana, a me ke kino ka waiwai a pau a eia i loko o ololi mokuna o lākou. Kona 'ole ka mea ana crystalline

Monochromatic kukui

monochromatic malamalama, he malamalama o kekahi kōā wale no. Ka hae melemele monochromatic malamalama hoʻohana no ka Refractometer ana, ua loko mai o ka paʻakai ka ohu kukui. Keia nae ninoieo ec loa pili loa kaulike ea puka laina elua, kona kaulana waiwai o 589.3nm

Multiphase inclusions

inclusions i pihaʻi wai, a me kinoea, a me / ai ole ia, he aniani la

Nacre

he secretion hua mai ma ke kapa o kekahi mollusks i 'ano apau loa i ka iridescent papa o na momi, a me ka makuwahine-o-Pearl ili i loko o ka mollusk iwi. Nacre ninoieo ec crystalline paʻapuna o Lime, a me ka ke aloha mea i kapaia o conchiolin

Namometers (HI)

pa alima ana no ka pōkole hawewe electromagnetic a o ka pae (radiant ikehu). 1 nanometer = 1 millioneth hapa o ka millimeter (1 / 1,000,000 HI) IAOEIAaO, i nanaia malamalama moe ma waena o 700nm (ulaula) a 400nm (lila)

Native e oki ai

manawa hoʻohana no ka mea, he kaila o ke oki kohoia no ka mea, i kā mākou kaupaonaʻana. Keia hohonu oki pohaku me ka nui halelewa pinepine pono

recutting e loaa maikai huliāmahi

maikaʻi 'aniani

cavities iloko o ka gem me ka crystalline helehelena. ua hana keia mau cavities i ka wa kekahi wahi ulu ma ke Aku uku mamua o na wahi, ho okumu a nahae ka kahi akea a ma kahi o ka palapala aniani inclusion ua mea hoʻoheheʻeʻia mai (io aniani pinepine ikea māmā ma mua o ko lākou poʻe kaua, ma lalo darkfield illumination)

maikaʻi 'inclusion

ka hopena maikaʻi inclusion ke kinoea, a kinowai piha paha no ka liʻiliʻi paa inclusion (ike no hoi io aniani)

maikaʻi 'ana

ina o ka pohaku ma lalo hoao ana ma luna o ka refractometer i ka R.1 ma luna o ka lohe ÿana o ka mea, aole malu maka eʻikeʻia e (koe nae ka mea o ka papa wai)

Ole-crystalline

minerals, a me na mea i olelo mai ai, e ole-crystalline ole amorphous (literally, me ka ano) i ka wa a lakou i Jack ka pololei oe internai atomic 'ole, a me ka geometrically mau mawaho nānā aku (e like me, ka mea pōhaku waiwai, Opal, a me aniani, e like me ke aloha i nā mea)

Ole-keokeo malamalama

( 'O ia hoʻi,' ia nā pōpō) ua i ho'ākāka 'ia ma ka olelo o kona hue non-keokeo malamalama (' o ia hoʻi, keʻano o kona mālama '-Hoʻohaku ke kōā), saturation (hohonu a me ka ikaika o ka Hoʻohaku ano) a me ka leo (malu-ka malamalama i ka pouli)

Normal

ma ka optics pau pana pua, he ana, mai ka maʻamau, he mana laina e holo ma ka 'aoʻao pana pua (90 lae kahi ke Ray hahau i ka ili, a aole hoi mai ka ilikai wale

Optic iho (axis)

i ka olelo a hookahi refraction loko o ka oleʻale huli refractive aniani ua ike e like me ka optic iho (axis)

Optic ano

ike opticʻano

Optic huahelu sphere

he aniani sphere i hoomakaukauia no ka pokole kookoo i hana e like me ka Punk maka aniani, e kōkua hoʻonā ai i ka 'ākeʻakeʻa lauana ike ma ka optic (axis) ma anisotropic mea

Optic ano

optic ano o ka mea pōhaku: minerals ua mahele ia i loko o uniaxial, biaxial a me ka isotropic (optic ano). Uniaxial a biaxial minerals ua hou subdivided iloko o ka poe i poe optically maikaʻi, a me ka poe a pau optically io (optic ka hoailona)

Optic hoailona

ike opticʻano

'ōnohi nuʻa

'ōnohi nuʻa he luna 'waiwai i demonstates wale i loko o ka meheu o iho o ka malamalama. (E nānā no hoi refraction)

ke aloha huahana

ke aloha huahana, he mau mea hua mai ma ka ha awina o ke ola meaola

Orient (o ka momi)

ka iridescent ili sheen o ka gem momi a me ka makuwahine-o-Pearl. Ka mea, ua i ka 'ākeʻakeʻa o ka malamalama ma lahilahi Film (ka lahilahi o ka nacreous, ahu iho) a ma ka diffraction mai ka uku kihi o na papa

Oriental momi

hana o keia makahiki, ua kapu i hōʻike no kūlohelohe momi i loaa ma ka sait wai mollusks o ka Peresia awawa. Nō naʻe, he mea ka oi nui kalepa i hana mau i ka papa pau saltwater maoli momi e like me oriental

māhele

māheleʻana he haki i lŘlŘ ma ka pelane o ka nawaliwali, aole ma Imi laua i ka aniani maka, a hiki

aniani maka, e like me ka cleavage (ka mea, ua hoiʻikeʻia e like me cleavage wahahee)

Pearl hua liilii

ka momi ai oia i ka hae ku pa alima no ka momi he 1 palaoa = 0.25 carat (1 HI = 4grains)

momi

momi, ua maoli me ka ho okumu pee accidentally, a me ke kōkua o kekahi kanaka oihana i, ma ke Keena Kalaiaina o mollusks. Ua haku o ka ke aloha waiwai (he scleroprotein inoa conchiolin) a me ka paʻapuna (i hookuu i ke ano o ka aragonite) hoonohonoho i concentric papa, i ka outermost o ka poe ka hapanui nacreous

Ka Uluwehi O

ike alohilohi

Pegmatites

igneous pohaku o ka lohi loa ka waiwai pinepine he pohihihi minerals, ke komo pu nui he aniani la o gemstones (e like me, berulo, chrysoberyl, feldspar, quartz, spessartite garnet)

Phosphorescence

phosphorescence mea iloko o keia hoolohi fluorescence ( 'o ia hoʻi, he mea i afterglow). Ka mea, ua ka mau ea puka o ka nanaia malamalama ma muli o ke kumu o ka energizing pāhawewe ua oki ae la

Photoluminescence

photoluminescence He Kane kau no fluorescence a me ka phosphorescence. No ka naau hōʻikeʻia e kekahi mau mea o ka hana i nanaia malamalama maluna o ka paku ole ia i pokole ke kōā pāhawewe (e like me, electromagnetic a radiations ma ka nanaia (uliuli), ultraviolet a me ka m-Ray kekahi hapa o ka pae)

onoho ana

uuku (particles) loaa e like me inclusions. I ka wa a mau a pau loa imua i ka nui nui lakou e ho'ākāka 'ia e like me ke ao, a me ka mäliko o ka pohaku i hihia

Placer hoʻokomo kālā

placer hoʻokomo kālā he poe ili concentrations o ka waiwai minerals o ka kiʻekiʻe i ho'ākāka 'umekaumaha (a durability) ka mea i hanaʻia ma ka weathering o ka makua pōhaku, a, ma ka hapanui hoopii, a laila i kaʻi aku ma ka kahawai, a nalu hana

Pelane o ka symmetry

kekahi o na oihana mua o symmetry; he pelane o ka symmetry, he mana pelane, a i hookaawale ai i ke kino i nā puʻuʻelua i kela a me keia aoao, ua ka lewa (aniani) ano o ka kekahi hapa ( 'o ia hoʻi, kekahi hapa, oia ka mea kiko'ī inverse counterpart o ka kekahi)

lula

he mau manawa no ka nui o ke aloha kanaka, i waiwai (ana i ke kēpau ma muli o pīlali) ka mea hiki ke extruded paha ka hopena e ka wela, a me / ai ole ia puʻe

Play o ke ano

ka manawa hula o ano ho'ākāka ka moʻo o'ōniʻoniʻoʻike i ka wa malamalama i ka lewa mai ka lahilahi Film, a mai ka singular puka olu oia, e like 'ole o ka maikai Opal. Ka mea, ua hua mai ma ka diffraction (ka lumai aku la o keokeo malamalama iloko o kona ke keʻena'ōniʻoniʻo e like me ka malamalama hele ma ka liʻiliʻi aperture) a he hana kūikawā ano o ka 'ākeʻakeʻa o ka malamalama

Pleochroism

pleochroism (literally, nui 'ia nā pōpō) no ka nui kau hoʻohana' ia e wehewehe i kaʻokoʻa directional waihoʻoluʻu i hiki keʻikeʻia i loko o kekahi 'ia nā pōpō pohaku i Wāwahi malamalama (' o ia hoʻi, uaʻale huli refracting) no ko na aniani 'ole. Kekahi mau mea like dichroism (ʻelua pōpō) a me ka trichroism (ekolu nā pōpō)

Polariscope

ka polariscope mea, he mea hana iloko olaila he elua anakahi no ka iecaianoaaiiie o ka pelane polarized malamalama hoonohonoho me ka rotating kahua ma waena o lākou. Ka mea ho'āʻo wale nō paha, aole paha lako hoi singly pahaʻale huli refractive

Polariscope reactions

singly refractive-lako e koe pouli ma ka 360 ° huli. Ina o ka mea ua ma lalo o internai ke kanana nei ia i hoike anomalous (wahahee) papalua refraction (ADR), i hookuu i ke ano o ka wavy paa, a ole loʻi. Palua refractive-pohaku oki mai ka hookahi aniani, ua eha nā kūlana hana o ka malamalama, a me ka eha nā kūlana hana o pouli. Crystalline 'Ohi aʻelemakule hui pū DR mea i ikea pau malamalama ma ka 360 ° huli. 'Ākeʻakeʻa huahelu-i ka hihia o DR mea, ina ke kūlana he pono, a me ka' ākeʻakeʻa huahelu, ua kaulana, he mea no hoi e hiki e ike ai i ka pohaku ua uniaxial paha biaxial. (Optic hoailona-hookahi i loaa i ke 'ākeʻakeʻa huahelu, he alaila, hiki e ike ai i ka pohaku ka mea maikaʻi' ole ka io a me ke kōkua o ke

mea kalaima papa lako pela no ia mea)

Polycrystalline

minerals i poe 'Ohi ka liilii, he aniani la ua kapa polycrystalline. Keia mau aniani uuku Hiki keʻike hoʻohana magnification, ai kekahi manawa, ma ka maka wale no (e like me, kokoke e pau jadeite jade)

Polysynthetic mau mahoe

ike lammelar mau mahoe

Potch (like Opal)

nō mea nele i ka hula o ka kala a pau, haku o ka silica i spheres o kaiʻewaʻewa nui hiki mai ana i ka malamalama, e hoʻopuehuʻia ma mua o diffracted

Protogenetic inclusions

mālama '-nei inclusions:: ka poe mamua o hoomaka ae la ka poe koa aniani e hana i keia manawa, a ua Komo' 'hoomakaukau i' loko o ka hope (e like me, paa (particles) a me liilii he aniani la lakou kamaʻilioʻana e e irregularly paa ana ma, a ua ponoʻole e pili ana i ka puali aniani o 'ole

Pseudomorph

he pseudomorph (wahaheʻe ano) he mea pōhaku i lawe i ke ano (kinona) o kekahi mea pōhaku (ai 'ole ke aloha waiwai) ma muli o ka wela, a me / ai ole ia a paÿa, a Nine kaʻina, IAOEIAaO, tiga ka maka o (quartz hope o ka crocidolite, he asbestos mea pōhaku); laauʻula (he quartz hope o ka laau)

noʻonoʻo

noʻonoʻo no ka mea hoi, ma ka ili (ina internai ole mawaho) o kekahi o ka malamalama ka mea e kau mai ma luna o kaʻili kai. Ike no hoi Snell ke Kanawai

Refraction

refraction no ka loli ma ke ala e hiki aku ai ma ka malamalama holo ÿana i ka wa e hele mai kekahi Media aku i kekahi o okoa'ōnohi nuʻa (koe nae ka pono ili o na Media elua ma 90 ° wa luku). E like me ka malamalama hele mai kekahi rarer i ka denser meakino (e like me, mai ke ea iloko o ka pohaku) he mea manao ma ka maʻamau, conversely e like me ka mea hele mai i ke denser i ka rarer meakino ka mea, ua lena aku, mai ka maʻamau. 'ōnohi Nuʻa he luna 'waiwai i hōʻikeʻike wale i loko o ka meheu o iho o ka malamalama. Ike no hoi Snell ke Kanawai

Refractive Index (HI)

ke HI He mea lākiō kapakai a i ka mämä holo o ka malamalama ma ka lewa i ka mämä holo o ka malamalama maloko o ka haawi meakino. Ka hae hoʻohanaʻia no ka mea ana refractive Index he ea (pololei i ka holo). pela ke HI o ka lewa, ua manaoia e lilo 1.00

Regional metamorphic

ka recrystallization o ka mea pōhaku oluolu o ka mālama '-nei pōhaku ma mahuahua mahana (700 ° -2000 ° C), a ma lalo iho o ka puʻuwai

pili nuʻa

E nānā i ho'ākāka 'umekaumaha (SG)

Residual hawewe

residual hawewe he mau hawewe i ke kemu ma ka mea a hui pu iho, e haawi mai ia makou i ka perc-eived kala like 'ole o kekahi mea

Resinous

E nānā i ke alohilohi

Kamaka

he pohaku ninoieo ec mea pōhaku (particles) e i ulu paha ua lepo pipili pu ma ka Nine keʻano o ka hanaʻana, a ua hoopaa pu ia ma ka ka wela a ka puʻuwai

Saturation

pili ia i ka mea e like ai, a me ka nui o ke kala a pau iʻikeʻia i loko o ka brilliancy uwila o ka aniani moakaka faceted pohaku

Schiller

E nānā i sheen

Scintillation

sparkle; ke hāʻawi aku o ka pokole, ao alohilohi i ka uwila o ka malamalama

Sectile

sectile pili ia i na pono ioeaie o ka ihi e ka pahi me ka pahee e oki ai

Sedimentary pōhaku

ka poe i hanaʻia ma ka hana i ka mea (sediments) i originated mai ka kino ai, a me Nine breakdown o ka mālama 'na pohaku ma ka honua i ka ili honua

hua momi

uuku loa na momi (emi malalo o v. palaoa / koke. 2mm) ka poe i hana maoli ai iloko o ka pahee'aʻaʻa o ka mollusk e like me ka hopena o ke kaua o ka mānoanoa o ke one, free lana hua, parasites a haole na kino. Hua momi, he ana ole a me ka palahalaha, aka, i ka wa e loaa pohihihi a poe, ua hoʻokaʻawale aʻela lākou i waho, no ka hoʻohana ma Jewelry. Ike no hoi Keshi momi

e wae omo

selective absorption o ka malamalama, oia ka suppression a absorption o kekahi hawewe mai ka malamalama hala ma o kekahi mea, a lewa i kona ili. Ke ano o ka mea hualoaʻa mai ka koe (residual) hawewe e hiki i ka maka

Sheen (ai ole schiller)

sheen He shimmering a eiei (hohola aku) noʻonoʻo ai i ka malamalama, ua lewa mai inclusions a mall helehelena i loko o ka pōhaku. Ke kau nā chatoyancy, asterism, adularescence, aventurescence, opalescence, iridescence (labrodrescence a me ka hula o ke ano ma ka Opal)

Silika (inclusion)

ke ano o ka laua paipu (pinepine rutile)

Single refractive

no hoi haawiia mai ai e like me isotropic. minerals i ho'āʻo i ka ia'ōnohi waiwai i pau kuhikuhi (e like me, nā pōhaku i loko o cubic nenoaiu a me ka amorphous mea)

Snell ke Kanawai o ka refraction

i ka wa a ka malamalama Ray hele mai kekahi meakino i loko o kekahi mea, e kū nei, he definite lākiō ma waena o ka sine o ka huina o incidence, a me ka sine o ka huina o ka refraction. I ka hana hewa Ray, ka refracted Ray, a me ka maʻamau, (ma ka welau o ka incidence), ua pau iloko o ka hookahi pelane. Ka ikaika lākiō ma waena o ka huina o ka incidence, a me refraction o kekahi mau Media, i ka'ōnohi kino, ua kapaʻia e Snell i ka refractive Index (HI)

South Sea momi

kanaka nunui hana 'ike loea momi, hana' ike loea ma kala-lipped Pearl oysters me ka anawaena o 12 a hiki 16mm. Keia nui keokeo na momi hoʻolimalima i ka inoa o South Sea no ka mea, ua mua hua mai e na Kepani ma Microne-Sia a me Indonesia. I kēia mau momi, ua oi aku pinepine hua mai la i ka Australia, a me Burma, a me Indonesia, ka 'âina Pilipino, Papua New Guinea, a me Thailand e like me ka emi nui kumu. I ka la, aole he holomuaʻimi hoʻopunipuni kuhakuha ohi o ke kala, lipped Pearl oysters, ka mea hoʻi i ke kokuaia mai e ka makuahine oysters mea i kaupalena 'ia, a me kumukūʻai e like kiʻekiʻe

I ho'ākāka 'umekaumaha (SG)

ka SG a hoahanau nuʻa o ka mea,ʻo ia ka lākiō ma waena o ke kaupaona ana o ka waiwai, a me ke kaupaona ana o ka like ka leo o ka maemae wai ma 4 ° C (ka wai no ke keiki i kā mākou nuʻa) a ma hae ka lewapuni a paÿa. SG ua pili i ka Nine haku mele 'ana o ka mea i pono, e like me ka mea i waena o-atomic palapala hoopaa (iloko o keia, me ka mea i' ole ma ka atomic kaumaha o ka likeʻole ke keʻena hehee wale, aka, no hoi ke ano ma ka mea a na nā'ātoma ua kau pu ole wale)

Spectroscope

he mea hana, mea hoʻokaʻawale i ka Ray o ka malamalama iloko o kona constituent hawewe a pae'ōniʻoniʻo ma muli hoʻi o ka prism a diffraction manamana. Ka spectroscope apono 'mea i ike i kekahi pauku (laina, a paa) ole wahi (palahalaha absorption) a keokeo malamalama, ua kemu kekahi gemstone ma ka liʻiliʻi ia, a hohola aku i ka residual hawewe i ho'īli paha lewa mai o ka pōhaku lalo hoao ana (aole i pau pohaku hoike i ka pae a aole e pau spectrums ike ua PalekanaEND_LINK aka, absorption auka e paa ai i hoike 'ia nā pōpō Agena paha ke alo o kekahi oihana mua)

Splintery

ike fracture

Symmetry

symmetry pili ia i ka regularity paha koena o ke kinona o ka gem iloko o ka maka-up oihana, a ma ka Profile

Syngenetic inclusions

Contemporary inclusions oia hoi o na waiwai i hoike aku i ka poe ia manawa e like me ka poe koa crystai (e like me, mea pōhaku puaʻa hiwa, ke kinowai ma cavities, a me ka hoola i na mawae, zonal auka e paa ai, o ke kinowai inclusions,. ko läkou 'o ka ulu ana e like me ka ano ciie? a māhoe ho okumu He pinepine ka kauoha intergrowth ma waena o ka syngenetic inclusions a me ka poʻe kaua aniani i ka poe elua i lawe i ka mall pilina alii ia e ka crystallographic kanawai

kemikala gemstones

he kemikala huina hoonui i ka ia Nine haku mele, atomic 'ole a me ka physical waiwai e like me kona maoli counterpart (e like me, kemikala omaomao, kemikala corundum, etc.)

Tenacity

tenacity a toughness, oia ka ia'ku o ka gem, i wawahi ole fracturing. Ua pili pū ana i na minerals akamai i ka hoʻokemu puu hua palaoa me ka 'uā' ka internai 'ole. Hua'ōlelo hālāwai me ia ma keia manao puke brittle, sectile, malleable,'ōlewa a me ka elastic

lahilahi Film

nānā akula au i lalo lewa malamalama mau lahilahi Film he iridescent helehelena KOLOHE o ka lahilahi ahu iho la ka aila ma ka wai a me ka multicolored ili o ke kopa huʻa

Ekolu pae inclusion

ka wai-piha lua hoopii i ka huʻa, a me ke aniani

leo

kamaʻilio pili ia i ka hoahanau mama, a me ka pouli ike (ina paha o ka hue a no keokeo i eleele)

Total na noʻonoʻo

huina o na noʻonoʻo lŘlŘ kahi i kekahi, Ray o ka malamalama hala, mai ka denser i ka rarer meakino ma ka huina i oi aku mamua o ka pilikia huina, ua hoi aku ka denser meakino kahi e nonoi aku nei i na kanawai o ka noʻonoʻo

Toughness

ike tenacity

hoʻololi hehee wale

inoa pili i kekahi mea hao oihana mua a no ko lakou atomic 'ole, ai ka selective absorption o ka malamalama, ma idiochromatic a me ka allochromatic pohaku. Ka mea, ua ikona, cobalt, keleawe, vanadium, manganese, hao, nickel a me ka titanium

ke hoʻouna i

e kekahi (e like me, ka malamalama) mai kekahi meakino i kekahi; e hoouna aku (e like me, he hoailona) a hoouna ia (e..g., mai kekahi mea ai kekahi)

Mäliko

ke ku okoa ana a me ka malamalama, ua hala ole pū i loko o ka pōhaku. Na degere o ka mäliko, ua hāʻawiʻia e like me: ka aniani moakaka (TP) -a aniani moakaka mea Hōʻike 'a absorbs he uuku nui o ka malamalama e kau mai maluna o ia mea, aka, e leie nui e hele aku ma waena. O kekahi mea nānā akula au i loko o ka pōhaku,ʻikea akaka, a okoa. Iiaciiie? Moakaka (S-TP) -a nui o ka malamalama, ua i hiki ma ka pohaku, aka, wale no ka outline o kekahi mea ma kela kapa o ka pohaku, aole e hiki ia mea ke hookoaiaʻe. Iiaciiie? Translucent (S-aku) -only he uuku loa ka nui o ka malamalama e hiki ke hele ma waena o ka gem ma ka lahilahi kihi. Opaque (0) -ail o ka malamalama ka mea e kau mai ma luna o ka opaque mea, ua kekahi lewa paha ke kemu. No malamalama ae ma ka mea, a hiki ma lahilahi penei.

Treacle inclusion

He wela-nalu, a roiled kanawai-wisps a me na swirls o ke ano

Twin aniani

ka māhoe aniani, he aniani i haku no elua halves o ka hookahi aniani, a elua a oi aku aniani la o ka hookahi? ueo i loaa ma ke ala crystallographic pili i kekahi i kekahi, a ua ulu pu i loko o ka symmetrical ano (e nānā i Hoʻokaʻaʻike mahoe, a me interpenetrant mahoe)

Elua pae inclusion

ka wai-piha lua hoopii i ka huʻa, a he aniani

Ultraviolet (UV)

ultraviolet o ia hoʻi, ma o aku o lila. Keia lohe ÿana o ka pāhawewe hoʻomaka me ka hawewe i ua pōkole mamua o ka 400nm o ka lila malamalama

Uniaxial pohaku

ma ka hexagonal, trigonal a me ka tetragonal aniani nenoai he hookahi optic (axis) (olelo o ka hoʻokahi refraction): minerals e pili ana i keia mau nenoai ua ikeia e like me uniaxial (ma uniaxial na pohaku o ka optic (axis) ua laua i ke poʻo kumu a mea vertical 'e' iho (axis))

Unit aeea

ka mokuna aeea o ke aniani 'ole i ka huna uuku loa o ke aniani, a aia nō inā paʻa nae ke ano waiwai o ke aniani, ua kapa ka pa alima aeea. Ke ano o ka mea a ka mokuna aeee ua noae ma ka makuwahine ano e hoʻoholo i nā mawaho nānā aku o ke aniani

paku inclusion

ike hulu inclusion

i nanaia kukui

i nanaia malamalama heʻano o ka radiant ikehu i haawi ala i ka waiʻona ma o ka maka. Kekahi kōā o ka electromagnetic a pāhawewe i ke kaha waena o 400nm, a me 700nm, ua hiki i ke kanaka maka e like me ka malamalama

Vitreous

ike alohilohi

ke kōā

i ke kōā, ua hoakaka e like me ka mamao ma waena o elua moekahi 'kuahiwi o kela nalu

Waxy

ike alohilohi

White kukui

keokeo malamalama (hui kukui) ua haku o ka kaha like kokekau hui o na mea a pau nā waihoʻoluʻu a hawewe i hana i ka mea i nanaia pae (ʻulaʻula,ʻalani, lenalena,'ōmaʻomaʻo, he uliuli a me ka lila). Ke ano o ka malamalamaʻilikai me ka hilinaʻi nui ma luna o ka ke kōā. Ula hawewe i ka loihi hawewe (700 + HI) a me keia diminishes ma ka pae e lila hawewe, a loaa i ka shortest (400nm-puni 1 / 4 ka loa o kaʻulaʻula kukuna)

pukaaniani

ka aniani moakaka 'āpana o ka haahaa ano pinepine' i ma ka malamalama leakage a 'ae i ke kāʻei kua ma ke kua o ka pohaku eʻikeʻia (Heluhelu-ma hookoia)

Zircon Halo

ike Halo inclusion

Zonal striae

ike 'ia nā pōpō poe hao wale

kikowaena: Maʻiʻo ua hoomaluia !!