Glossary huaʻōlelo Gemology

Abalone momi
nā pōpō baroque na momi hua mai la e ka edible univalue mollusk i mea pepeiao-hoʻokino iwi i komo ai no kona multicolored makuahine-o-Pearl lining. ʻO Ia, ua loaa ma Amerika, New Zealand a me Japanese wai. Ke kuka spheroid, ua ana flattened a me ka pepeiao, a tooth- hoʻokino
ka hoʻokemu
e lawe i (e like me, he waiwai) a lawe ia paha ka waiwai ikehu mai radiant ikehu (e like me, ka malamalama)
Absorption pae
ke kumu o ka pouli vertical mau laina, paa, ai ole ia wahi (palahalaha absorption), ike i ka wa malamalama ana i ho'īli ai lewa mai ka gemstone ua hoopuehuia i loko o kona spectral eiiiiiaiou, a hookolokolo aku la ia me ka mea kani, e like me ka spectroscope.
Adamantine
ike alohilohi
Adularescence
nae ke ano bluish-i keokeo, aole nō sheen (schiller) moonstone
Allochromatic
i ka wa a ke hoʻololi hehee ai ua makana wale nō e like me kekahi Nā hana huikala i loko o ka gem mea, o ka lako e ua allochromatic (allo = kekahi, chroma = 'ia nā pōpō)
Alluvium
nui manawa mau i hoʻohana no ka mea, hoʻokomo kālā o ka pōhaku'ōpala (alluvial hoʻokomo kālā) i kaʻi aku e kahe ana ka wai, a waiho iho la ma kahawai, muliwai, wai maopopo a Lake moe.
Amorphous
ike ole-crystalline
Anisotropic
ikeʻale huli refractive
Archimedes rula
Archimedes rula hākālia nō i ka wa a ke kino, ua bapetizo ana ma ka wai, alaila, i ka luna hou o ka wai ma ke kino, ua like ia me ke kaumaha o ka wai a pau ka. (O ka manao paa o ka ho'ākāka 'umekaumaha, ma ka hydrostatic he iaoiaeii ma luna keia rula)
ʻimi hoʻopunipuni pohaku
he aniani la ke kanaka, i ka mea i ole maoli counterpart (e like me, ke daimana simulants: strontium titanate, a me YAG)
ʻimi hoʻopunipuni lapaʻau
ka enhancement o ka helehelena o ka waiwai ma ka paio hahana maoli nō, i hookohu aku i, ka penaʻana, impregnation, irradiation paha kukuna-ʻepekema
akoakoa gemstones
kekahi gem ia mai he elua a oi aku na hapa i lepo pipili, a fused pu, e hana i hookahi pohaku
Asterism
asterism ka mea, he manaʻo kanawai, nui eha a eono-Ray, mai aligned olona, ​​a fibrous cavities ma ka pohaku i okioki em cabochon me na inclusions aʻo i kaʻoihana pilipń i ke kaei pelane
Aventurescence
ikaika spangled noʻonoʻo i ka malamalama mai ka papa a flakes o kekahi mea pōhaku i komo iloko o ka pohaku (e like me, e like me ka ike ma ka aventurine aniani, aventurine quartz, aventurine feldspar (sunstone))
Iho (axis) o ka symmetry
kekahi o na oihana mua o symmetry, he (axis) o ka symmetry, he mana laina ma ka konu o ke aniani, no ka mea hiki e ke ka ao ke aniani pela e like me ia e haawi aku ai ia i ka ia nānā aku 2, 3, 4 a 6 manawa i hookahi piha kuapo ( 'o ia hoʻi , he like me helehelena ninoaaeyao he like kulana, oi aku mamua o hookahi ma ka loa kuapo)
Baroque momi
inoa pili i ka momi, o ka poe ma kona ano maoli a me ka hana 'ike loea, blister paha cyst,
a he ole in shape
ʻalā
basalt mai, no ka mea, he pono ole extrusive igneous pohaku, he pouli, he hua liilii-pohakuʻano nui i ae la o ka pouli, a me feldspar pyroxene (me ka ole olivine ole). He nui, he nui no ka ike ana'ku i ua hoʻolaha kaumaha maluna o likeʻole ma ka hionapāʻili, me nā hale a me ka mea pōhaku maʻiʻo
Biaxial pohaku
i nā ʻōnaehana orthorhombic, monoclinic a me triclinic aia ʻekolu mau koʻi aniani o nā lōʻihi like ʻole. E loaʻa ka reflex pālua ma ka hapanui o nā ʻaoʻao, akā e loaʻa nā axic optic ʻelua (ʻaoʻao o ka refaction hoʻokahi) i ʻokoʻa i ka orientation o kēlā me kēia ʻano gem. ʻO nā minelala e pili ana i kēia ʻōnaehana ʻike ʻia he biaxial. (I ka ʻōnaehana orthorhombic pili like nā axic optic i ka 'c' (axis vertical axis), ʻoiai ma ka monoclinic a me ka triclinic ʻaʻohe pilina pili pono me nā koʻi aniani.)
Birefringence
(No hoi haawiia mai ai e like me ka papalua refraction / DR) birefringence, oia ka huina o papalua refraction o ka anisotropic gemstone hōʻike e like me ka likeʻole o ka refractive indices, ma kā mākou kaʻawaleʻana
Biwa momi
ole-nucleated hana 'ike loea momi (pinepine'ololaha a baroque ma ka shape ma Japan) mahiʻai a puni na kapakai o Lake Biwa ma Iapana. O na momi, ua ulu i loko o nui wai mussels i ka hoʻokomo 'koena uuku o kaʻaʻahu i loko o ke kino o ka mussel
kīnā
mau manawa no ka flaw i loli ai i ka ili o ka gem. A kīnā mea ana i na kanaka hana, ma ka wa o ka gem ua i hookiia mai ai oiai ka mea, ua i koʻu manaʻo i loko o Jewelry. Scratches, lua, a me na abrasions poe i ka loa e like me ke ano o naʻole
Blister momi
na momi a ua uhiia ma kekahiʻaoʻao wale nō, ma ka nacreous, ahu iho i ulu ma luna o ka palapala irritant ma ka hui 'ana me ka mollusk iwi. I ka wa ia momi i extracted, i ka wahi ana i ka hui 'ana me ka iwi, ua hānau o ka nacre. Nolaila kēia hanau aoao ua ana o Keʻei aku, a hūnāʻia ma ka Kāu Mau Koho Paʻamau
Brilliance
brilliance, oia ka huina nui o internally lewa malamalama i ka mea i hoʻi mai ai i ka maka, mai ka gemstone. ʻOkoʻa Ka mea, e hiki e hoikeia e like me ka mālamalama (ola) o ka gemstone e like me ka manao ana o ke dala o ka malamalama hoʻi hou i ka maka, mai ka hope aku o facets o ka pohaku
Brittleness
brittleness ua hoakakaia e like me ka nawaliwali ma ka gemstone a mamua o kona paakiki,ʻo ia ka mea susceptible i ka fracture, pōʻino (e like me, wela lapaau ana zircon)
Popoki ka maka o
ike chatoyancy
Center o ka symmetry
kekahi o na oihana mua o symmetry, he konu o ka symmetry, ua hiki mai ka wa a na maka o ka mea hemolele aniani, ua diametrically e ku pono ana i ka like maka ma kēlāʻaoʻao o ke aniani ( 'o ia hoʻi, nā maka i kekahi maka i ka mea like, e ku pono ana a me ka laua)
Chatoyancy
kahi hopena noʻonoʻo mai ka oriented fibrous inclusive a i ʻole ʻūhū (maka o ka pōpoki). Hōʻike ka laina hoʻokahi o ke kukui ma nā ʻaoʻao ʻākau i ke kuhikuhi o ka hoʻopili ʻana a ʻike maikaʻi ʻia ia ma lalo o kahi kumu kukui overhead hoʻokahi me nā pōhaku i ʻoki ʻia en cabochon
Chelsea 'ia nā pōpō kanaka hōʻike manaʻo
ka mea oia no he huihui 'ana o kānana, ua i kūkulu i ka mea apono' elua wale no puka pauku o ka pae e hiki ma ia mea: o na hohonu ulaula (kokoke 690nm) a me ka hulu uliuli (kokoke 570nm). He mea pono i ka hoike ana i ke alo o ke ikona a cobalt iloko o kekahi gems, no ka mea, o ka ka loaʻaʻana o ka (ikona) kalameaʻai i ka pohaku, a no ka hookaawale ana i kekahi gem noi mai lakou, he pono ole Mohai. Hoʻomanaʻo: E hoʻohana i e like me ke aoʻana hoailona wale no. Maopopo ua kalele iho ma luna o nā ho'āʻo ma
Chromophore
(ʻākena kala). ʻO ka ʻāpana o ka mole i kuleana no ke kala o kahi hui. Aia ia ma ke ʻano he mea nui i ka hoʻohui kemika i nā pōhaku idiochromatic a i ʻole kahi hoʻomaʻemaʻe accidentai i nā pōhaku allochromatic
Clarity
manawa hoʻohana 'ia e wehewehe i ka pili okoa ana mai kekahi internai kina ole irregularity (inclusions) i loko o ka gem. I ka ho'ākāka 'ana i ia mai no hoi e komo ili mā (kina), i ka wa noonoo pono i ka clarity papa o ka pohaku
kala like 'ole poʻe hao wale
me kaʻoʻoleʻa laua poe hao wale o ka kala a pau iʻikeʻia ma luna o ka ili o na aniani la, a ma ka internai hale o na pohaku (indicative o ka ulu ana kūlana i ka oko ao ka loaʻa Nine Inch, ke kinowai, ka mahana, a paÿa, a me na kumu)
Kala like 'ole i loko o gems
kahi ʻike ʻike o nā mea i hiki ai ke hoʻokaʻawale i ke kukui keʻokeʻo (ʻulaʻula, ʻalani, melemele, ʻōmaʻomaʻo, polū, ʻeleʻele) a me ke ʻano o ka poni i ʻike ʻole ʻia i ka laulaha o ka lā. Hōʻike ʻia ke kala e ka hue, ka māʻona a me ke kani. Loaʻa ke kala o ke kino o kahi pōhaku mai ke kukui e ʻike ʻia ai a ma muli hoʻi o ka lawe ʻia ʻana o kekahi mau nalu lōʻihi o ke kukui i ʻike ʻia. Hiki ke kumu ʻia ke kala e ka hoʻopuehu, ke ākea o ka mālamalama a me ka fluorescence
kala like 'ole ciie?
kala like 'ole ciie? acaeoey oo i ka ulu ana o ke aniani aie i kue concentrations o na impurities. Na likeʻole kala like 'ole (mea paa ole cii) maʻamau ike ka poe e hahai i ka na aniani maka
'ia nā pōpō hehee wale
Selective absorption o ka malamalama ma muli o ke alo o ka hoʻololi hehee (ikona, cobalt, keleawe, vanadium, manganese, hao, nickel, titanium) ma idiochromatic, a me na pohaku allochromatic
kana olelo hoopomaikai
olelo hoopomaikai i ka likeʻano i ka papakaukau, a ua noi pakahi aku la ia i ka wa a na aniani la hoike hoailona no o mall (particles) (e like me, fme-hua liilii jadeite jade)
ahupapa gemstone
ike akoakoa gemstone
Conch momi
nonono na momi: momi i loaa mai ka conch nui, he univalve mollusk loaa aku ka mokuna o Hawaii, awawa o Kaleponi, a me Mexico. Keia mau momi, ua maʻamau a pink (a pink alani, a keokeo) ke kala, a me ua wehewehe aku i ka nele o ka nacreous ka penaʻana
Conchoidal
ike fracture
E leka uila mai iaʻu tamorphic
ka recrystallization o ka mea pōhaku oluolu o ka mālama '-nei pōhaku ma, a kokoke i ka papa ciia ma muli o ke alo o ka pelemaka pa
Hoʻokaʻaʻike māhoe
he hoailona o ke aniani twinning, ma ka mea a na kanaka a pau i loko o Hoʻokaʻaʻike ma ka pono pelane (ka māhoe pelane). Na wahi elua o ua aniani ua i hai mai ia ina kekahi hapa i ke ka ao ma o 180 ° (ka hapalua huli) e pili ana i ka iho (axis) (i ka māhoe (axis)) alaila, na halves elua e i ke kinona o ka lula o ke aniani. Ka Hoʻokaʻaʻike māhoe i koe ma nā 'ano apau loa, hoʻokahi papa māhoe-kahi 2 halves o ke aniani, ua i aʻe kauoha a ina kekahi hapalua i ke ka ao ka 180 ° e pili ana i ka pelane, a hui pu, ke ano o ka maʻamau aniani, ua loaa ia; hou, polysynthetic a lammelar kapu-he hoailona o ke aniani twinning ec ke ano o ka Hoʻokaʻaʻike mahoe pinepine i ka loa a lahilahi. Keia ua hoʻonohonoho i ke alo kohoʻia i ko lākou koke hoalauna (e like me, e like me ka loaa ma ka corundum a me ka feldspar). Ike no hoi interpenetrant kapu
pilikia huina
ka huina o incidence kahi i Ray o ka malamalama i ka mea i hele mai i optically denser i rarer meakino ua refracted ma 90 ° i ka maʻamau ( 'o ia hoʻi, he skims ka ili o ka Media elua ma ka Hoʻokaʻaʻike). 'Ōlelo Aʻo: ka mea hou e mahuahua ma keia huina o ke incidence e kauoha i ka refracted Ray kakou e hoi hou i loko o ka palapala meakino kahi ia e noho ai, ma na kanawai o ka noʻonoʻo (' o ia hoʻi, he mea e ae ihola ia internally lewa.)
Cryptocrystalline
(Crypto = nalo). Kau hoʻohana i ka hōʻikeʻia oia hoi o ka luku nui helu o na aniani liʻiliʻi pinepine iiaciiie? Microscopic ho okumu i ka unbroken nui. I ke poʻomanaʻo, 'microscopic aniani Ohi a hiki ikeia amorphous i ka maka kapa ole
he aniani
he aniani ka mea, he chemicallyʻaʻahu paa me ka kauoha internai atomic 'ole, a mawaho ano kau palena ia ana symmetrically hoonohonoho pelane (i lalo) maka
he aniani ano
he aniani ano ninoieo ec pau kēlā mau maka i like loa aku i ka crystallographic koʻi lipi (e like me, pyramid, prism, pinacoid, Dome)
he aniani maʻa
ke aniani kinona (ano, hoʻohui ili honua ano) ma ka mea minerals pele i hoʻomaka ai, ua kapaia ko lakou anianiʻano
aniani inclusions
aniani inclusions he 'ia ma ko lakou ua kŘpa a angular kihi, a me kŘpa a pololei penei. Haoʻa kihi, a me iki e kokoke anaʻano a ua halawai no hoi me ka pono i reabsorption o na inclusions. (Aniani inclusions pele hoike mai i loko o ke ola e kū'ē i ka poʻe kaua kāʻei kua i ka wa a nana aku la au malalo iho o darkfield illumination, a hiki ke kulana kupono ma ka hoʻohana 'ana i kela kapa polars.)
he aniani symmetry
aniani symmetry pili ia i ka 'O ke kaulike kumu hoʻohālike o ka atomic' ole. He mea ka kūlike loa nā'ōlelo (houʻano) o ka like aniani maka (kihi, kihi) e hoike i ka hoʻoponoponoʻana o Kamehameha kauoha kipi o ka waiwai.
Crystalline
crystallineʻia ma ka ho'ākāka 'ana no ka mea pōhaku paa kona Ion, nā'ātoma a molecules ua hoonohonoho ia ma ka pololei oe ano. I mea, o ka manawa ua pinepine hoʻohana 'ia e wehewehe i waiwai loaa no i ka papa' ole a me ka directional ka waiwai aka, aole pono ka poe mawaho geometric ke kinona
Crystallographic koʻi lipi
keia poe ka mana laina o indefinite loa e holo mai ana ma ka
maikaʻi aniani iloko o kekahi definite kuhikuhi i pili i ka symmetry o ke aniani. Lakou intersect ma ka waena konu o ke aniani ma kekahi welau i kapaia ka ho omaka. (He mau laina o ka maopopo, mai ka mea e hiki ke ana ana i ka mamao a me na inclinations o na maka likeʻole.)
hana 'ike loea momi
hana 'ike loea momi, ua Uluwehi me ka ho okumu loa, a hapa' ia, kena ae la
ma ka piʻiʻana o ke kanaka oihana i loko o ke Keena Kalaiaina o na huahana mollusks. Keia pili i ka hana 'ike loea momi ina paha me me ka nucleus ole
Cyst momi
he momi a i hana ma loko o ke kino o ka momi mollusk, a ua spheroid ma ka shape
Dendritic inclusion
lāʻau-like a moss-like crack crack e hoʻopihapiha ana (kahi e hoʻokomo ai i nā mea o nā mea like ʻole i kahi haʻihaʻi - maʻamau ka hao hao.)
Divitrify
e hoʻonele i ka hoʻonani aniani a me ka transluceny. (I ka hihia o ke aniani huahana i kapa ʻia meta jade - ma o ka hoʻomohala ʻana o ka crystallization incipient)
Dichroscope
ka dichroscope mea he mea hana e leie aku ka pleochroic 'ole o ka gem minerals e malama, elua waihoʻoluʻu a me malu o ka ano i ka manawa
Diffraction
ka diffraction o ka malamalama, he hana kūikawā ano o ka 'ākeʻakeʻa o ka malamalama, ma na mea keokeo malamalama, ua wāwahi ihola lākou i (mahae) i loko o kona ke keʻena'ōniʻoniʻo e like me ka malamalama hele ma ka liʻiliʻi aperture a i ka wa malamalama hawewe kekahi, he maka ma waena okoa refracting waiwai (e like me, ka hula o ke anoʻikeʻia i loko o makamae Opal)
lakou hoopuehu
ʻo ka hoʻolahalaha ka hoʻokaʻawale ʻana (haki ʻana) o ke kukui keʻokeʻo i loko o nā kala spectral e ka repraction (ke kūlou ʻana o ke kukui) ke hele ka mālamalama ma waena o nā ʻāpana ʻelua. I nā gems ua kapa ʻia ia he 'ahi'
palua refractive
anisotropic - nā minelala e hōʻike ana i nā ʻōnaehana opua kuhikuhi (e laʻa me nā pōhaku i ke tetragonal, hexagonal trigonal, orthorhombic, monoclinic a me nā ʻōnaehana triclinic)
electromagnetic a pae
manawa hoʻohanaʻia no ka mea, i ka pau ÿana o ka hawewe o radiant ikehu mai ka loihi Radio hawewe e holo i ka loa pokole cosmic hawewe
Oihana mua o symmetry
na oihana mua o symmetry he ke ano o ka classifi-cation no ka ehiku aniani nenoai. Ka mea, he mea maalea, e hiki ai ia kakou e kaawale ae wehewehe i nāʻano likeʻole o ke aniani helehelena. Lakou i hoʻokomo i ka pelane o ka symmetry, he (axis) o ka symmetry, a me ka piko o ka symmetry (e nānā wehewehe malalo o kanaka kau i ka papa)
Eluvium
eluvial hoʻokomo kālā he o ka pōhaku'ōpala (iliili) ka mea i eroded (ino aku), mai ka poʻe kaua pohaku, a koe ma ka situ (ma kahi) me undergoing halihali ma na muliwai
hoʻokuʻu
e haawi aku ai iwaho, (e like, malamalama)
Enantiomorphism
ka hakakino 'ole o ka quartz i haawi ala i ka hema, a me ka lima'ākau spiral ulu o ka quartz, a me kona hoʻopoepoe polarization. ( 'Ōlelo Aʻo: ka hoʻokomo' ana o liʻiliʻi auxillary maka a he pinepine hiki ma ka mawaho ano kokua kuhikuhi i ka hema, a pono kaulike o ka aniani)
Enhancement
ikeʻimi hoʻopunipuni lapaʻau
Epigenetic inclusions
Mail Contemporary inclusions. Ka poe i mai ai mahope iho o ke kahua o ka puali aniani. Keia mau nā acee? Iuo oeiia ka māwae, a me ka mea pōhaku inclusions i hanaʻia ma ka exsolution (e like me, rutile silika ma ka corundum); aole e hōʻikeʻaila / opticon, etc., koena ma ka fracture piha gems.
Exsolved
i ka lama paʻipaʻi o minerals. Kekahi hui o na minerals kuahene paa pāʻoihana ma kiʻekiʻe mahana, a lilo i ka poe i emi mahana. I ka wa a keia mau hoomaalili mai mālie hookahi mea pōhaku e puʻe wale aku i ka wa o ke kaua 'ole anuanu a me na aelike, literally'ōpā impurities iloko o hakahaka hakahaka kahi a lakou crystallize (e like me, rutile kuikele (silika) ma ka corundum)
ia'na
ia'na, oia ka wa e kaawale o ka malamalama hoʻi i ka maka. Oia ke kumu o ka pohaku, e hele mai pouli a me ka nele i ka billiance
Facet inoa
faceted gems i ka lei (luna puʻu waiwai ma luna o ke kāʻei), i ka papaʻaina (ka waena facet o ka pāpale aliʻi), he kāʻei (i ka pauku o ka pōhaku, me ka nui anapuni a mawaho palena), he halelewa (na kumu kuleana ma lalo o ke kaei ). A pau na facets ke oko a ma loko o ko lākou nui, alapine (frequency) a hoi ola ke kaumaha ma muli o ka ohi kaila hoʻohana. No ka mea, laʻana, i loko o ka hae mua-oki (omaomao oki) pohaku i ka culet (uuku facet ma ke kumu o ka lānai) UAIAaIN ka keel laina (lōʻihi laina e holo ana ma ka waena konu o ka lalo o ka lānai)
wahahee cleavage
ike māheleʻana
hulu inclusion
he pelane o ka minuke cavities i ikea maʻamau e like me ka nui o ka laau-e like pauku o intercommunicating auwai a (ana wai a piha).
Fibrous
inoa i haawiia i ka mea a ka constituent he aniani la, he kui kele ma-hoʻokino (e like me, asbestos, nephrite jade)
Fingerprint inclusions
keia hiki no hoi e hiki ke ikeia e like me ka hoola hulu, a he poe interconnecting latike o ka wai, piha auwai a me na droplets like ka fingerprint. I hookuu i ka hopena o ka mea pōhaku pāʻoihana i nā kānana iloko o ka mālama '-nei mau māwae, ma kekahi ano hana aniani, a me ka hoola ana i ka māwae pōhaku. Ka kekahi kulana kahi mau helehelena e hana hoi i wela wela lapaau. Fingerprints ua hui iloko o ia ka'agate
a pau
hoʻopau pili ia i ka faceting Hawaiʻi o ka gem, a ua hookolokoloia ma ke degere o ka alohi, regularity, a me flatness o kela a me keia facet
Fluorescence
fluorescence no ka ea puka o ka nanaia malamalama ma gemstones a pau i paku ole ia i hiki ole invisible radiations o pōkole ke kōā (ikehu kiekie)
Fracture
fracture ka mea, he ole inoaia, a wanaao ae, ma ka pohaku
heluʻai
he maikai pohaku o kekahi ano keia ano, oki a me ka anaiia no ka mea nani (momi, he He paahao kaulana koe nae i ka hope koi). A gem ma ka ho'ākāka 'ana, he mea e paʻa nani, a me ka durability rarity
aniani
ka manawa aniani, ua pili i ka waiwai a pau i hanaia ma ka heheʻe, a me kokololio ka huʻihuʻiʻana o ka mea pōhaku waiwai, kūpono ma loko o ke kahua o amorphous mea. Aniani hiki eʻimi hoʻopunipuni (manmade, i kekahi manawa, haawiia aku e like me kāpili ma luna) a oi Kākaʻikahi, maoli e like, obsidian (huaʻi aniani), tektites (manaʻo e lilo meteoric pakī huahana)
Granite
granite ka mea, he malamalama ia nā pōpō, lohi loa-hua liilii intrusive igneous pohaku i i ka hapanui o ka quartz, feldspar a me Mika
ulu wanaao,
māmā a uala eleele auka e paa ai i ka pololei laina ma pana pua e hahai i ka mall kumu o ka mea pōhaku
maʻa
nae ke ano kinona i loko o ka mea a ka mea pōhaku loa mau ia lŘlŘ. Maʻa aole wale me ka 'mawaho ano olelo aponoia ai pela e ka mea pōhaku aka hoi KOLOHE ili' ole e like me ka pono
Hackly
ike fracture
Halo inclusion
aniani inclusion puni i ka stress mau māwae, (s). Keia nana hiki no hoi ia e like me ka hahai i nā'ēheuʻelua emanating mai ka pū aniani (ka mea ana zircon)
paakiki
ʻo ka paʻakikī ka mana a kahi mineral e pale aku ai i ka wili ʻana (abrasion). E nānā i ka pālākiō o Moh
ka hoola mawae
hoola iho la na mawae (na mawae a me cleavages) kahi i ka wai a komo aku la i ka anaʻe, a me ke aniani ulu hou mai. Pinepine haʻawina o ka loli, ua trapped iloko o na cavities a me na auwai a ma o na la feathery a fingerprint-e like me lauana (kekahi manawa hao-i kohuia)
Hue
kuhikuhi ka hue i ka inoa o ke kala ponoʻī: nā senstral maʻemaʻe o ka ʻulaʻula, ʻalani, melemele, ʻōmaʻomaʻo, polū, ʻeleʻele a me nā ʻano o kēia mau mea. Hōʻike pū ʻo Hue i ke ʻano o ka poni (ma waena o ka ʻulaʻula a me ka viola), ʻaʻole i loaʻa i ka lā o ka lā
Hydrothermal
pōhaku waiho iho, i hookuu ia ma ke kuʻina hope o igneous consolidation mai ka pelemaka waiwai iloko o ka wai, a me na yiaeaiiacaaeneiie waiwai. Ka hydrothermal aa koko o ka mea pōhaku waiwai pāʻoihana Kānana ma i wāhiʻia a me nā māwae, ma sedimentary pōhaku, a me ke ano aniani hoalaala cavities i loko o ka pōhaku
Idiochromatic
i ka wa a ke hoʻololi'āweʻaweʻa mea he nui constituent i loko o ka gem mea, ke gem nā mea idiochromatic (idio = iho, chroma = 'ia nā pōpō)
kaiapuni aeea
uuku aniani aeea no ka mea, i loaʻa pono ke kinowai. Ka loina hope o ka hoʻohana 'ana i ka puka aeea oia i ka refractive Index o ka wai, ua hiki i ka pohaku, i ka hiki pono o ka mea, e lilo ia i ike i loko o ka pōhaku. Aneane kekahi colorless wai, i ka wai, e kua i laloʻilikai noʻonoʻo, ae hana niio? Inclusions nui maʻalahi
i situ
mea pilikia ma ka oihana kahi mea i mua i hana ai waihoia ua olelo mai ia, e loaa ia ia ma situ (literally ma ka wahi)
Inclusion
mau manawa no kekahi kina ole irregularity i loko o ka gem. Inclusions hiki ke maheleia i ekoluʻano: (e like me, zircon ma ka sapeiro) (e like me, ma kona ano maoli aniani ma ka peridot) he paa-na crystalline ai ole-crystalline hiki. Cavities-keia e hana i ka poʻe kaua gems ka ulu ana (iniiaiie inclusions), ai 'ole ma hope (kiʻekiʻe inclusions). i piha ai kekahi 'ano me kekahi huihui' ana o ka wai, kinoea, a me a paa. Poe me elua a oi aku kūlana ua kapa multiphase. Ka ulu phenomena-kala like 'ole ciie? A twinning he mau laʻana o ka ulu ana phenomena
kōāʻula
kōāʻula ano laloʻulaʻula, a me keia lohe ÿana o ka pāhawewe hoʻomaka me ka hawewe i poe hou mamua o ka 700nm o ka ulaula malamalama. Kōāʻula ua nui ike e like me ka wela, no ka mea, produces i ka waiʻona ma o ka mehana i ka wa e pepehi kakou lele
'ākeʻakeʻa
kahi elua na kukuna hele ana ma ke ala hookahi, aka, mai loko mai o ka pae (koe), ae ālai ia 'pu kekahi i kekahi ma o na la kekahi huina ia'na o ka malamalama, a me ka mālama'-dominance o hookahi a oi aku waihoʻoluʻu
'ākeʻakeʻa oeeo?
keia poe'ōnohi ole ike i ka wa e nānā akula au i papalua refractive minerals ma o laua maka ma ka nń kaola o polarized malamalama. Lakou hoʻolimalima IeIAaUIIe 'ike no ka'ōnohi ano o ka pohaku
Interpenetrant mau mahoe
he hoailona o ke aniani twinning i mea elua kanaka i ulu ai pu ai lakou hoike hou aku ai, ua komo iloko o kekahi i kekahi, (pinepine ka hana kea, ai 'ole hoku pohaku)
Iridescence
iridescence a hula o ke ano ho'ākāka ka waihoʻoluʻu a moʻo o na waihoʻoluʻu i lawe ma ke 'ākeʻakeʻa a me diffraction i ka wa malamalama i ka lewa kekahi lahilahi Film mai paha mai ka hanana' ole o ka mea maikai i Opal
Isomorphous hope
ka substitution o kekahi Nine hehee ai, no kekahi o ka mea hookahi valency i loko o ka Nine haku mele. Keia hualoaʻa ma akea likeʻole i loko o ka hoʻoponopono waiwai o na lala o ka moʻo. Valency: na ano like Nine ano, a me ionic kahahńnai
Isotropic
ike singly refractive
Keshi hana 'ike loea momi
kūlohelohe ʻole ʻia nā momi wai ʻōiwi ʻole i kū i ka mollusk ke hoʻihoʻi ʻia i ka wai ma hope o ka hemo ʻana o kahi mea kanu o nā momi non-nucleated moʻomeheu. ʻAʻole e huikau kēia mau mea me nā pearis hua kai ʻoi aku ka liʻiliʻi o ka liʻiliʻi. ʻO ka keshi wai hou ka mea i kapa ʻia ʻo ia wale nō no ka mea ʻaʻole ulu ʻia mai kahi nucleus hana. I kekahi manawa kapa ʻia ʻo nā momi "seedless" e hana i ka hoʻokaʻawale me nā non-nucleated. E ʻike pū i nā momi Biwa
Keshi na momi (nā)
kāhea ka Kepanī i nā momi hua `keshi '(popi). ʻO ka hui ma waena o ka liʻiliʻi o nā hua poppy a me nā momi hana maoli maoli
Konoscope
he polariscope i hoomakaukauia me ka ikaika nń maka aniani e kōkua kōkua i ka, mākaʻi ihola iā o ke 'ākeʻakeʻa huahelu
Lamellae inclusions
kena ae la ma polysynthetic twinning. Hiki ke hele mai e like me ka poe makapo a me ka aniani moakaka iʻa-aho. Ia lakou e hoi ikea e halawai me ka pana pua (e like, ma ka corundum kahiʻaoʻao halawai)
Lateritic soils
honuaʻia (haku o ka pohaku koena ai, a me kanu) ka mea i kuhikuhi loko mai o decomposed basait (he maikai na hua liilii pouli pele pohaku waiwai i ka hao, a me magnesium, i ka mea loa hamama i ka hopena o Nine weathering i loko o ka Tropical aniau)
Luminescence
no ka hāʻawi ʻana i ke kukui `anuanu 'i ʻike ʻia e kekahi mea ma ke kiʻi ʻana i ka ikehu koena ma kekahi ʻano a i ʻole. ʻO nā kumumanaʻo luminescent phenomena ʻelima: chemi-luminescence (hopena o ka loli kemikal), tribo-luminescence (hua ʻia e ka hakakā), thermo-luminescence (hua ʻia e ka wela), photo¬luminescence (i hana ʻia e nā radiation i ʻike ʻia a ʻike ʻole ʻia paha o ka ikehu kiʻekiʻe / pōkole. ke kōā) a me ka cathodoluminescence (nā hopena mai ka pīhoihoi me kahi kukuna uila i kahi keʻena hakahaka)
alohilohi
alohilohi no ka nui a me ke kūpono o ka malamalama i ka lewa, mai ka ili aku o ka pohaku. Ka hahai huaÿölelo ua hoʻohana 'ia e hōʻike gemstone alohilohi: mea hao: kiʻekiʻe alohilohi hoike e opaque mea hao minerals. adamantine: kiʻekiʻe ili reflectivity. vitreous: aniani, e like me alohilohi KOLOHE o ka hapa nui o na gems. resinous: KOLOHE alohilohi o na resins (pahee me ka haahaa HI). waxy: aneane matte ili (i kekahi manawa, i kapaʻia ka waʻa). ka waʻa: iki oily nana ana mai o ka hoopuehu ana o ka malamalama ma ka microscopically hoʻonaninani ili. Ka Uluwehi O: alohilohi o ka momi / makuahine-o-Pearl. silky: fibrous alohilohi o ke silika
Mabe (eoeuoo? U) momi
ahupapa hana 'ike loea blister na momi, ma ka mea a ka palapala nucleus i hele ai, a UAIAaIN ma ka liʻiliʻi lei lepo pipili i loko, a me ka Dome-hoʻokino'āpana o ka mother- o-Pearl tuko i kona kumu e uhi i ka wahi nele ma nacre
ka pelemaka
hoʻoheheʻe (wai) pohaku
Malleable
malleable ano ua hiki hoi ke ka io a me ke kinona o ka pepehi ana me ka hamare ai ole ia, ma ka puʻe o rollers
Man-i
ke kanaka-i hoonui i ka ho'ākāka 'ana, he mea ia i synthesized ma ke keʻena hoʻokolohua. (E synthesize oia e kau pu ole hui pu iho kumumea i loko o ka luna 'a pau). Ka hopena hopena i ka kemikala gemstone ( 'o ia hoʻi, kekahi mea i kekahi maoli counterpart) ai' ole kaʻimi hoʻopunipuni gemstone ( 'o ia hoʻi, hookahi ka mea i loaa ole maoli counterpart)
papakaukau
manawa hoʻohana i ka hōʻike mea i paʻa i ka definite internai 'ole o ke aniani, aole ka mea, aole ia e hoike i ka oihana geometric ano. Keia hiki e haku o hookahi (e like me, ala quartz) a oi aniani naehana (e like me, jadeite)
Mettalic
ike alohilohi
Metamict
i ka manawa hoʻohanaʻia no ka mea ana i ae aku i kaʻoluʻolu o-ia ilalo, mai ke crystalline i ka he amorphous ana; he pono ole iloko o minerals i loaʻa radioactive mea (e like me, haahaa type zircon)
Metamorphic pōhaku
metamorphic (literally, hoʻololi i ke ano) pōhaku, ua hana mai ka mālama '-nei pōhaku kuhikuhi ma ka hana o ka'aloʻahiʻa, ka wela a me / ai ole ia i ka hoike o ka hou Nine waiwai
Metric carat (HI)
hoʻokahi metric carat = hoʻokahi ʻelima o ka gram (0.20gr) a i ʻole 200 milligrams (mg). ʻO ke metric carat ka paona o ke kaupaona no nā pōhaku gemstones a me nā momi moʻomeheu. Hōʻike ʻia ke kaupaona i nā wahi kekona ʻelua a kāhea pinepine ʻia nā decimals 'mau helu', ʻo ia hoʻi, 1 metric carat = 100 mau helu
Microscope
he'ōnohi hana oia i kekahi huihui 'ana o lenses i produces i hoonui mau loa ia kiʻi o kekahi mea. Kekahi o ka oi nui hoʻohana o ka magnification: inclusion ao (maoli vs. ke kanaka-i, ano paha o ka ho okumu / ulu aniani); ʻilikai ninaninau (Hawaiʻi o ke oki (symmetry), Polish (kanawai o ka facets, firemarks), ka loaʻaʻana o ka lua pōhaku, ka hōʻoiaʻana i kaʻimi hoʻopunipuni kūlana kanaka, huai ae vulnerability i poho (e like me, imua o ka fracture, a me / ai 'ole cleavage), huai ae a pāpālua hoʻi (M. kakou .DR, no hoi e hoike dala o ka birefringence)
mea pōhaku
he mea pōhaku he maoli 'ia inorganic waiwai me ka Nine haku mele' ana, a me ke kino ka waiwai a pau a eia i loko o ololi mokuna o lākou. Kona 'ole ka mea ana crystalline
Monochromatic kukui
monochromatic malamalama, he malamalama o kekahi kōā wale no. Ka hae melemele monochromatic malamalama hoʻohana no ka Refractometer ana, ua loko mai o ka paʻakai ka ohu kukui. Keia nae ninoieo ec loa pili loa kaulike ea puka laina elua, kona kaulana waiwai o 589.3nm
Multiphase inclusions
inclusions i pihaʻi wai, a me kinoea, a me / ai ole ia, he aniani la
Nacre
he secretion hua mai ma ke kapa o kekahi mollusks i 'ano apau loa i ka iridescent papa o na momi, a me ka makuwahine-o-Pearl ili i loko o ka mollusk iwi. Nacre ninoieo ec crystalline paʻapuna o Lime, a me ka ke aloha mea i kapaia o conchiolin
Namometers (HI)
pa alima ana no ka pōkole hawewe electromagnetic a o ka pae (radiant ikehu). 1 nanometer = 1 millioneth hapa o ka millimeter (1 / 1,000,000 HI) IAOEIAaO, i nanaia malamalama moe ma waena o 700nm (ulaula) a 400nm (lila)
Native e oki ai
manawa hoʻohana no ka mea, he kaila o ke oki kohoia no ka mea, i kā mākou kaupaonaʻana. Keia hohonu oki pohaku me ka nui halelewa pinepine pono
recutting e loaa maikai huliāmahi
maikaʻi 'aniani
cavities iloko o ka gem me ka crystalline helehelena. ua hana keia mau cavities i ka wa kekahi wahi ulu ma ke Aku uku mamua o na wahi, ho okumu a nahae ka kahi akea a ma kahi o ka palapala aniani inclusion ua mea hoʻoheheʻeʻia mai (io aniani pinepine ikea māmā ma mua o ko lākou poʻe kaua, ma lalo darkfield illumination)
maikaʻi 'inclusion
ka hopena maikaʻi inclusion ke kinoea, a kinowai piha paha no ka liʻiliʻi paa inclusion (ike no hoi io aniani)
maikaʻi 'ana
ina o ka pohaku ma lalo hoao ana ma luna o ka refractometer i ka R.1 ma luna o ka lohe ÿana o ka mea, aole malu maka eʻikeʻia e (koe nae ka mea o ka papa wai)
Ole-crystalline
minerals, a me na mea i olelo mai ai, e ole-crystalline ole amorphous (literally, me ka ano) i ka wa a lakou i Jack ka pololei oe internai atomic 'ole, a me ka geometrically mau mawaho nānā aku (e like me, ka mea pōhaku waiwai, Opal, a me aniani, e like me ke aloha i nā mea)
Ole-keokeo malamalama
( 'O ia hoʻi,' ia nā pōpō) ua i ho'ākāka 'ia ma ka olelo o kona hue non-keokeo malamalama (' o ia hoʻi, keʻano o kona mālama '-Hoʻohaku ke kōā), saturation (hohonu a me ka ikaika o ka Hoʻohaku ano) a me ka leo (malu-ka malamalama i ka pouli)
Normal
ma ka optics pau pana pua, he ana, mai ka maʻamau, he mana laina e holo ma ka 'aoʻao pana pua (90 lae kahi ke Ray hahau i ka ili, a aole hoi mai ka ilikai wale
Optic iho (axis)
i ka olelo a hookahi refraction loko o ka oleʻale huli refractive aniani ua ike e like me ka optic iho (axis)
Optic ano
ike opticʻano
Optic huahelu sphere
he aniani sphere i hoomakaukauia no ka pokole kookoo i hana e like me ka Punk maka aniani, e kōkua hoʻonā ai i ka 'ākeʻakeʻa lauana ike ma ka optic (axis) ma anisotropic mea
Optic ano
optic ano o ka mea pōhaku: minerals ua mahele ia i loko o uniaxial, biaxial a me ka isotropic (optic ano). Uniaxial a biaxial minerals ua hou subdivided iloko o ka poe i poe optically maikaʻi, a me ka poe a pau optically io (optic ka hoailona)
Optic hoailona
ike opticʻano
'ōnohi nuʻa
'ōnohi nuʻa he luna 'waiwai i demonstates wale i loko o ka meheu o iho o ka malamalama. (E nānā no hoi refraction)
ke aloha huahana
ke aloha huahana, he mau mea hua mai ma ka ha awina o ke ola meaola
Orient (o ka momi)
ka iridescent ili sheen o ka gem momi a me ka makuwahine-o-Pearl. Ka mea, ua i ka 'ākeʻakeʻa o ka malamalama ma lahilahi Film (ka lahilahi o ka nacreous, ahu iho) a ma ka diffraction mai ka uku kihi o na papa
Oriental momi
hana o keia makahiki, ua kapu i hōʻike no kūlohelohe momi i loaa ma ka sait wai mollusks o ka Peresia awawa. Nō naʻe, he mea ka oi nui kalepa i hana mau i ka papa pau saltwater maoli momi e like me oriental
māhele
māheleʻana he haki i lŘlŘ ma ka pelane o ka nawaliwali, aole ma Imi laua i ka aniani maka, a hiki
aniani maka, e like me ka cleavage (ka mea, ua hoiʻikeʻia e like me cleavage wahahee)
Pearl hua liilii
ka momi ai oia i ka hae ku pa alima no ka momi he 1 palaoa = 0.25 carat (1 HI = 4grains)
momi
momi, ua maoli me ka ho okumu pee accidentally, a me ke kōkua o kekahi kanaka oihana i, ma ke Keena Kalaiaina o mollusks. Ua haku o ka ke aloha waiwai (he scleroprotein inoa conchiolin) a me ka paʻapuna (i hookuu i ke ano o ka aragonite) hoonohonoho i concentric papa, i ka outermost o ka poe ka hapanui nacreous
Ka Uluwehi O
ike alohilohi
Pegmatites
igneous pohaku o ka lohi loa ka waiwai pinepine he pohihihi minerals, ke komo pu nui he aniani la o gemstones (e like me, berulo, chrysoberyl, feldspar, quartz, spessartite garnet)
Phosphorescence
phosphorescence mea iloko o keia hoolohi fluorescence ( 'o ia hoʻi, he mea i afterglow). Ka mea, ua ka mau ea puka o ka nanaia malamalama ma muli o ke kumu o ka energizing pāhawewe ua oki ae la
Photoluminescence
photoluminescence He Kane kau no fluorescence a me ka phosphorescence. No ka naau hōʻikeʻia e kekahi mau mea o ka hana i nanaia malamalama maluna o ka paku ole ia i pokole ke kōā pāhawewe (e like me, electromagnetic a radiations ma ka nanaia (uliuli), ultraviolet a me ka m-Ray kekahi hapa o ka pae)
onoho ana
uuku (particles) loaa e like me inclusions. I ka wa a mau a pau loa imua i ka nui nui lakou e ho'ākāka 'ia e like me ke ao, a me ka mäliko o ka pohaku i hihia
Placer hoʻokomo kālā
placer hoʻokomo kālā he poe ili concentrations o ka waiwai minerals o ka kiʻekiʻe i ho'ākāka 'umekaumaha (a durability) ka mea i hanaʻia ma ka weathering o ka makua pōhaku, a, ma ka hapanui hoopii, a laila i kaʻi aku ma ka kahawai, a nalu hana
Pelane o ka symmetry
kekahi o na oihana mua o symmetry; he pelane o ka symmetry, he mana pelane, a i hookaawale ai i ke kino i nā puʻuʻelua i kela a me keia aoao, ua ka lewa (aniani) ano o ka kekahi hapa ( 'o ia hoʻi, kekahi hapa, oia ka mea kiko'ī inverse counterpart o ka kekahi)
lula
he mau manawa no ka nui o ke aloha kanaka, i waiwai (ana i ke kēpau ma muli o pīlali) ka mea hiki ke extruded paha ka hopena e ka wela, a me / ai ole ia puʻe
Play o ke ano
ka manawa hula o ano ho'ākāka ka moʻo o'ōniʻoniʻoʻike i ka wa malamalama i ka lewa mai ka lahilahi Film, a mai ka singular puka olu oia, e like 'ole o ka maikai Opal. Ka mea, ua hua mai ma ka diffraction (ka lumai aku la o keokeo malamalama iloko o kona ke keʻena'ōniʻoniʻo e like me ka malamalama hele ma ka liʻiliʻi aperture) a he hana kūikawā ano o ka 'ākeʻakeʻa o ka malamalama
Pleochroism
pleochroism (literally, nui 'ia nā pōpō) no ka nui kau hoʻohana' ia e wehewehe i kaʻokoʻa directional waihoʻoluʻu i hiki keʻikeʻia i loko o kekahi 'ia nā pōpō pohaku i Wāwahi malamalama (' o ia hoʻi, uaʻale huli refracting) no ko na aniani 'ole. Kekahi mau mea like dichroism (ʻelua pōpō) a me ka trichroism (ekolu nā pōpō)
Polariscope
ka polariscope mea, he mea hana iloko olaila he elua anakahi no ka iecaianoaaiiie o ka pelane polarized malamalama hoonohonoho me ka rotating kahua ma waena o lākou. Ka mea ho'āʻo wale nō paha, aole paha lako hoi singly pahaʻale huli refractive
Polariscope reactions
singly refractive-lako e koe pouli ma ka 360 ° huli. Ina o ka mea ua ma lalo o internai ke kanana nei ia i hoike anomalous (wahahee) papalua refraction (ADR), i hookuu i ke ano o ka wavy paa, a ole loʻi. Palua refractive-pohaku oki mai ka hookahi aniani, ua eha nā kūlana hana o ka malamalama, a me ka eha nā kūlana hana o pouli. Crystalline 'Ohi aʻelemakule hui pū DR mea i ikea pau malamalama ma ka 360 ° huli. 'Ākeʻakeʻa huahelu-i ka hihia o DR mea, ina ke kūlana he pono, a me ka' ākeʻakeʻa huahelu, ua kaulana, he mea no hoi e hiki e ike ai i ka pohaku ua uniaxial paha biaxial. (Optic hoailona-hookahi i loaa i ke 'ākeʻakeʻa huahelu, he alaila, hiki e ike ai i ka pohaku ka mea maikaʻi' ole ka io a me ke kōkua o ke
mea kalaima papa lako pela no ia mea)
Polycrystalline
minerals i poe 'Ohi ka liilii, he aniani la ua kapa polycrystalline. Keia mau aniani uuku Hiki keʻike hoʻohana magnification, ai kekahi manawa, ma ka maka wale no (e like me, kokoke e pau jadeite jade)
Polysynthetic mau mahoe
ike lammelar mau mahoe
Potch (like Opal)
nō mea nele i ka hula o ka kala a pau, haku o ka silica i spheres o kaiʻewaʻewa nui hiki mai ana i ka malamalama, e hoʻopuehuʻia ma mua o diffracted
Protogenetic inclusions
nā mea i hoʻokomo ʻia ma mua: nā mea i noho ma mua o ka hoʻomaka ʻana o ka aniani hoʻokipa a hoʻokomo ʻia 'mākaukau i hana ʻia i loko o ka hope (e laʻa, nā ʻāpana paʻa a me nā aniani liʻiliʻi. Kūleʻa pinepine ʻia lākou a pili pinepine i nā aniani o ka hoʻokipa. hanana
Pseudomorph
he pseudomorph (ʻano hoʻopunipuni) kahi mineral i lawe i ke ʻano (kinona) o kekahi mineral (a i ʻole nā ​​mea ʻokanika) ma muli o ka wela a me / a i ʻole kaomi a i ʻole ke kaʻina hana kemika, e laʻa me ka maka o ke Tiga (quartz replacement of crocidolite, a asbestos mineral); agate lāʻau (kahi quartz pani pani lāʻau)
noʻonoʻo
ke aniani ke hoʻi mai o kahi ʻilikai (inā internai a i waho paha) o kekahi o nā kukui i hāʻule ma luna o kēlā ʻili. E ʻike pū i nā kānāwai o Snell
Refraction
ʻo ka refaction ka loli i ke ala e hele ai ka mālamalama ke hala ia mai kekahi media a i kekahi ʻokoʻa kiʻekiʻe ʻokoʻa (koe wale ke kuʻi ʻana i ka ʻāpana maʻamau o nā pāpāho ʻelua ma 90 °). Ke hele nei ke kukui mai kahi rarer a i kahi medium denser (e laʻa, mai ka ea i loko o kahi pōhaku) kūlou ʻia i ka mea maʻamau, ʻoiai ke hele aʻe ia mai kahi denser i kahi medium rarer ua kūlou ʻia ia mai ka maʻamau. ʻO ka density optical kahi waiwai paʻakikī e hōʻike iā ia iho i ka lohi o ka mālamalama. E ʻike pū i nā kānāwai o Snell
Refractive Index (HI)
ke HI He mea lākiō kapakai a i ka mämä holo o ka malamalama ma ka lewa i ka mämä holo o ka malamalama maloko o ka haawi meakino. Ka hae hoʻohanaʻia no ka mea ana refractive Index he ea (pololei i ka holo). pela ke HI o ka lewa, ua manaoia e lilo 1.00
Regional metamorphic
ka recrystallization o ka mea pōhaku oluolu o ka mālama '-nei pōhaku ma mahuahua mahana (700 ° -2000 ° C), a ma lalo iho o ka puʻuwai
pili nuʻa
E nānā i ho'ākāka 'umekaumaha (SG)
Residual hawewe
residual hawewe he mau hawewe i ke kemu ma ka mea a hui pu iho, e haawi mai ia makou i ka perc-eived kala like 'ole o kekahi mea
Resinous
E nānā i ke alohilohi
Kamaka
he pohaku ninoieo ec mea pōhaku (particles) e i ulu paha ua lepo pipili pu ma ka Nine keʻano o ka hanaʻana, a ua hoopaa pu ia ma ka ka wela a ka puʻuwai
Saturation
pili ia i ka mea e like ai, a me ka nui o ke kala a pau iʻikeʻia i loko o ka brilliancy uwila o ka aniani moakaka faceted pohaku
Schiller
E nānā i sheen
Scintillation
sparkle; ke hāʻawi aku o ka pokole, ao alohilohi i ka uwila o ka malamalama
Sectile
sectile pili ia i na pono ioeaie o ka ihi e ka pahi me ka pahee e oki ai
Sedimentary pōhaku
ʻo kēlā mau mea i hoʻokumu ʻia e ka kūkulu ʻana i nā mea (sediment) i hoʻomaka ʻia mai ka haʻihaʻi kino a me nā kemika o nā pōhaku i kū ma ka honua.
hua momi
uuku loa na momi (emi malalo o v. palaoa / koke. 2mm) ka poe i hana maoli ai iloko o ka pahee'aʻaʻa o ka mollusk e like me ka hopena o ke kaua o ka mānoanoa o ke one, free lana hua, parasites a haole na kino. Hua momi, he ana ole a me ka palahalaha, aka, i ka wa e loaa pohihihi a poe, ua hoʻokaʻawale aʻela lākou i waho, no ka hoʻohana ma Jewelry. Ike no hoi Keshi momi
e wae omo
selective absorption o ka malamalama, oia ka suppression a absorption o kekahi hawewe mai ka malamalama hala ma o kekahi mea, a lewa i kona ili. Ke ano o ka mea hualoaʻa mai ka koe (residual) hawewe e hiki i ka maka
Sheen (ai ole schiller)
sheen He shimmering a eiei (hohola aku) noʻonoʻo ai i ka malamalama, ua lewa mai inclusions a mall helehelena i loko o ka pōhaku. Ke kau nā chatoyancy, asterism, adularescence, aventurescence, opalescence, iridescence (labrodrescence a me ka hula o ke ano ma ka Opal)
Silika (inclusion)
ke ano o ka laua paipu (pinepine rutile)
Single refractive
no hoi haawiia mai ai e like me isotropic. minerals i ho'āʻo i ka ia'ōnohi waiwai i pau kuhikuhi (e like me, nā pōhaku i loko o cubic nenoaiu a me ka amorphous mea)
Snell ke Kanawai o ka refraction
i ka wa a ka malamalama Ray hele mai kekahi meakino i loko o kekahi mea, e kū nei, he definite lākiō ma waena o ka sine o ka huina o incidence, a me ka sine o ka huina o ka refraction. I ka hana hewa Ray, ka refracted Ray, a me ka maʻamau, (ma ka welau o ka incidence), ua pau iloko o ka hookahi pelane. Ka ikaika lākiō ma waena o ka huina o ka incidence, a me refraction o kekahi mau Media, i ka'ōnohi kino, ua kapaʻia e Snell i ka refractive Index (HI)
South Sea momi
kanaka nunui hana 'ike loea momi, hana' ike loea ma kala-lipped Pearl oysters me ka anawaena o 12 a hiki 16mm. Keia nui keokeo na momi hoʻolimalima i ka inoa o South Sea no ka mea, ua mua hua mai e na Kepani ma Microne-Sia a me Indonesia. I kēia mau momi, ua oi aku pinepine hua mai la i ka Australia, a me Burma, a me Indonesia, ka 'âina Pilipino, Papua New Guinea, a me Thailand e like me ka emi nui kumu. I ka la, aole he holomuaʻimi hoʻopunipuni kuhakuha ohi o ke kala, lipped Pearl oysters, ka mea hoʻi i ke kokuaia mai e ka makuahine oysters mea i kaupalena 'ia, a me kumukūʻai e like kiʻekiʻe
I ho'ākāka 'umekaumaha (SG)
ʻo ka SG a i ʻole ke kiʻina pili i kekahi mea ka lakio ma waena o ke kaupaona o kahi mea a me ke kaupaona o ka nui o ka wai maoli ma 4 ° C (ka nui o ka wai) a me ka kaomi maʻamau maʻamau. Pili ʻo SG i ka hoʻohui kemika o nā kumuwaiwai a me ka hoʻopili ʻana o nā ʻenoma (i ka hopena, hoʻololi ʻia ʻaʻole wale e ke kaupaona atomika o nā ʻāpana like ʻole akā ʻo ke ʻano hoʻi e kau pū ʻia nā ʻĀtoma)
Spectroscope
he mea hana, mea hoʻokaʻawale i ka Ray o ka malamalama iloko o kona constituent hawewe a pae'ōniʻoniʻo ma muli hoʻi o ka prism a diffraction manamana. Ka spectroscope apono 'mea i ike i kekahi pauku (laina, a paa) ole wahi (palahalaha absorption) a keokeo malamalama, ua kemu kekahi gemstone ma ka liʻiliʻi ia, a hohola aku i ka residual hawewe i ho'īli paha lewa mai o ka pōhaku lalo hoao ana (aole i pau pohaku hoike i ka pae a aole e pau spectrums ike ua PalekanaEND_LINK aka, absorption auka e paa ai i hoike 'ia nā pōpō Agena paha ke alo o kekahi oihana mua)
Splintery
ike fracture
Symmetry
symmetry pili ia i ka regularity paha koena o ke kinona o ka gem iloko o ka maka-up oihana, a ma ka Profile
Syngenetic inclusions
Contemporary inclusions oia hoi o na waiwai i hoike aku i ka poe ia manawa e like me ka poe koa crystai (e like me, mea pōhaku puaʻa hiwa, ke kinowai ma cavities, a me ka hoola i na mawae, zonal auka e paa ai, o ke kinowai inclusions,. ko läkou 'o ka ulu ana e like me ka ano ciie? a māhoe ho okumu He pinepine ka kauoha intergrowth ma waena o ka syngenetic inclusions a me ka poʻe kaua aniani i ka poe elua i lawe i ka mall pilina alii ia e ka crystallographic kanawai
kemikala gemstones
he kemikala huina hoonui i ka ia Nine haku mele, atomic 'ole a me ka physical waiwai e like me kona maoli counterpart (e like me, kemikala omaomao, kemikala corundum, etc.)
Tenacity
tenacity a toughness, oia ka ia'ku o ka gem, i wawahi ole fracturing. Ua pili pū ana i na minerals akamai i ka hoʻokemu puu hua palaoa me ka 'uā' ka internai 'ole. Hua'ōlelo hālāwai me ia ma keia manao puke brittle, sectile, malleable,'ōlewa a me ka elastic
lahilahi Film
nānā akula au i lalo lewa malamalama mau lahilahi Film he iridescent helehelena KOLOHE o ka lahilahi ahu iho la ka aila ma ka wai a me ka multicolored ili o ke kopa huʻa
Ekolu pae inclusion
ka wai-piha lua hoopii i ka huʻa, a me ke aniani
leo
kamaʻilio pili ia i ka hoahanau mama, a me ka pouli ike (ina paha o ka hue a no keokeo i eleele)
Total na noʻonoʻo
huina o na noʻonoʻo lŘlŘ kahi i kekahi, Ray o ka malamalama hala, mai ka denser i ka rarer meakino ma ka huina i oi aku mamua o ka pilikia huina, ua hoi aku ka denser meakino kahi e nonoi aku nei i na kanawai o ka noʻonoʻo
Toughness
ike tenacity
hoʻololi hehee wale
inoa pili i kekahi mea hao oihana mua a no ko lakou atomic 'ole, ai ka selective absorption o ka malamalama, ma idiochromatic a me ka allochromatic pohaku. Ka mea, ua ikona, cobalt, keleawe, vanadium, manganese, hao, nickel a me ka titanium
ke hoʻouna i
e kekahi (e like me, ka malamalama) mai kekahi meakino i kekahi; e hoouna aku (e like me, he hoailona) a hoouna ia (e..g., mai kekahi mea ai kekahi)
Mäliko
ke ku okoa ana a me ka malamalama, ua hala ole pū i loko o ka pōhaku. Na degere o ka mäliko, ua hāʻawiʻia e like me: ka aniani moakaka (TP) -a aniani moakaka mea Hōʻike 'a absorbs he uuku nui o ka malamalama e kau mai maluna o ia mea, aka, e leie nui e hele aku ma waena. O kekahi mea nānā akula au i loko o ka pōhaku,ʻikea akaka, a okoa. Iiaciiie? Moakaka (S-TP) -a nui o ka malamalama, ua i hiki ma ka pohaku, aka, wale no ka outline o kekahi mea ma kela kapa o ka pohaku, aole e hiki ia mea ke hookoaiaʻe. Iiaciiie? Translucent (S-aku) -only he uuku loa ka nui o ka malamalama e hiki ke hele ma waena o ka gem ma ka lahilahi kihi. Opaque (0) -ail o ka malamalama ka mea e kau mai ma luna o ka opaque mea, ua kekahi lewa paha ke kemu. No malamalama ae ma ka mea, a hiki ma lahilahi penei.
Treacle inclusion
He wela-nalu, a roiled kanawai-wisps a me na swirls o ke ano
Twin aniani
ka māhoe aniani, he aniani i haku no elua halves o ka hookahi aniani, a elua a oi aku aniani la o ka hookahi? ueo i loaa ma ke ala crystallographic pili i kekahi i kekahi, a ua ulu pu i loko o ka symmetrical ano (e nānā i Hoʻokaʻaʻike mahoe, a me interpenetrant mahoe)
Elua pae inclusion
ka wai-piha lua hoopii i ka huʻa, a he aniani
Ultraviolet (UV)
ultraviolet o ia hoʻi, ma o aku o lila. Keia lohe ÿana o ka pāhawewe hoʻomaka me ka hawewe i ua pōkole mamua o ka 400nm o ka lila malamalama
Uniaxial pohaku
i nā ʻōnaehana hexagonal, trigonal a me tetragonal aia kekahi axis (kuhikuhi o hoʻokahi pele): ʻike ʻia nā minelala o kēia mau ʻōnaehana me he uniaxial (i nā pōhaku uniaxial like ka axis optic me ke axis kumu kiʻekiʻe 'c')
Unit aeea
ka mokuna aeea o ke aniani 'ole i ka huna uuku loa o ke aniani, a aia nō inā paʻa nae ke ano waiwai o ke aniani, ua kapa ka pa alima aeea. Ke ano o ka mea a ka mokuna aeee ua noae ma ka makuwahine ano e hoʻoholo i nā mawaho nānā aku o ke aniani
paku inclusion
ike hulu inclusion
i nanaia kukui
i nanaia malamalama heʻano o ka radiant ikehu i haawi ala i ka waiʻona ma o ka maka. Kekahi kōā o ka electromagnetic a pāhawewe i ke kaha waena o 400nm, a me 700nm, ua hiki i ke kanaka maka e like me ka malamalama
Vitreous
ike alohilohi
ke kōā
i ke kōā, ua hoakaka e like me ka mamao ma waena o elua moekahi 'kuahiwi o kela nalu
Waxy
ike alohilohi
White kukui
keokeo malamalama (hui kukui) ua haku o ka kaha like kokekau hui o na mea a pau nā waihoʻoluʻu a hawewe i hana i ka mea i nanaia pae (ʻulaʻula,ʻalani, lenalena,'ōmaʻomaʻo, he uliuli a me ka lila). Ke ano o ka malamalamaʻilikai me ka hilinaʻi nui ma luna o ka ke kōā. Ula hawewe i ka loihi hawewe (700 + HI) a me keia diminishes ma ka pae e lila hawewe, a loaa i ka shortest (400nm-puni 1 / 4 ka loa o kaʻulaʻula kukuna)
pukaaniani
ka aniani moakaka 'āpana o ka haahaa ano pinepine' i ma ka malamalama leakage a 'ae i ke kāʻei kua ma ke kua o ka pohaku eʻikeʻia (Heluhelu-ma hookoia)
Zircon Halo
ike Halo inclusion
Zonal striae
ike 'ia nā pōpō poe hao wale